The Secret History of Hyderabad State of the Nizam (South India; 1724 – 1948)
Last Updated on July 15, 2021 by Hamad Subani
Feroze Jung I in the Deccan
The Deccan also turned out to be a mighty proving ground for Mughal military commanders. Thousands of kilometers away from the intrigues of the palace and the harem, in a breathtaking alien landscape, surrounded by wilderness, where any approaching group of strangers was more likely a to be foe than a friend, with constant shortages of food and water, with emergency reinforcements days away and in constant vigil for surprise attacks, this was a place where genuine wit and courage shined like diamonds in the coal. Many Mughal military commanders emerged from the Deccan as legends. One early hero was the Rajput Mirza Raja Jai Singh I of Amber, who first besieged Shivaji and forced him to sign a Peace Treaty with Aurangzeb in 1665. His great-grandfather was Raja Man Singh I of Amber, a trusted military commander of Emperor Akbar. The grandfather of Man Singh I was Raja Bharmal, the first Rajput ruler to marry his daughter to Mughals. The successors of Mirza Raja Jai Singh I would later establish the fabled city of Jaipur as well as the Jantar Mantar astronomical observatory in Delhi. The Jantar Mantar was intended to utilize Hindu practices of astronomy to aid Mughal officials, who followed the Islamic calendar, which is based on movements of the moon. Aurangzeb granted Mirza Raja Jai Singh I of Amber and Jaswant Singh Rathor of Marwar a high position in the imperial hierarchy than had ever been accorded to any non-Muslim since the days of Akbar.Satish Chandra, “Jizyah and the State in India during the 17th Century,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 12.3 (1969): 140.
Two highly mobile Mughal field armies would fight 19 major battles with the Marathas. The first field army was lead by Mughal noble Zulfiqar Khan, Daud Khan Panni (an Afghan noble who once served Bijapur), and the Rajputs Dalpat Rao Bundela and Ram Singh Hara.J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 236. Zulfiqar Khan was a conspiratorial figure, later becoming a vicious kingmaker in Delhi. During the Deccan Campaign, he was known for his weak and vacillating approach towards the Marathas. The second field army was lead by the father of Asif Jah I, Feroze Jang I and various members of his Uzbek-origin family.J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 235. Amin Khan, the religious officer or sadr of Aurangzeb, was affiliated with this second field army.J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 246. Unlike the first field army which would seek peace with the Marathas when necessary, the second field army were hardliners, always ready for combat. Sleeping in makeshift tents and supervising combat during the day, the young Asif Jah I had early exposure to warfare in the Deccan. His father was the Mughal commander who captured the Qutb Shahi city of Hyderabad without facing any resistance. He then led the assault that conquered the Qutb Shahi fortress complex of Golconda, which was surrounded by seven walls. His grandfather was mortally wounded in the assault.
Aurangzeb would die in the Deccan in 1707. Even though he had accomplished the conquest of South India in one giant undertaking, he had yet to consolidate it. And he had decided never to return to Delhi until this was accomplished. Aurangzeb had willed that his Empire be divided among his sons and he did not designate any of his sons as a Crown Prince. It seems that the Illuminati candidate was Prince Azam, whose mother was closely related to the Illuminati Safavids of neighboring Iran. During Aurangzeb’s life, Prince Azam had been involved in an attempted coup. Mughal noble Zulfiqar Khan was the son of another Mughal noble Asad Khan, and also seemed to have some kind of connection to the Safavids. In the confusion that followed Aurangzeb’s death, Zulfiqar Khan and Prince Azam banded together and went to war against Prince Bahadur Shah I. Even though Bahadur Shah I was willing to concede a major portion of the Empire to Azam, as Aurangzeb had willed. Prince Bahadur Shah I took a brave stand and Zulfiqar Khan fled the scene of battle. Throughout his career, Zulfiqar Khan had carefully cultivated friendships with the Rajput chiefs of the First Field army to aid Azam’s upcoming bid for the throne. Of these Rajput chiefs, Mirza Raja Jai Singh I fled with Zulfiqar Khan. But Dalpat Rao Bundela and Ram Singh Hara ended up dying on the battlefield.
Unlike Prince Azam, Bahadur Shah I had no Illuminati connections to Safavid Iran. His mother was from the Jarral Muslim-Rajput dynasty of Kashmir. And early on, The Powers That Be had made sure that he had fallen into disfavor with Aurangzeb by repeatedly filling the ears of the Emperor with his perceived misdeeds. But with Bahadur Shah I as the new king, the conspirators had to start all over again. Zulfiqar Khan would sneakily worm his way back into the court of Bahadur Shah I, even though he had opposed him the battle of succession. When Bahadur Shah I died in 1712, Zulfiqar Khan was back in business, propping up another prince named Jahandar Shah. Zulfiqar Khan emerged as the first vizier to have more power than the Emperor since the time of Akbar.
The Illuminati Sayyid Brothers
Like Zulfiqar Khan, Feroze Jung I and his successor Asif Jah I could have just as easily become king-makers after Aurangzeb. They had far more clout and military power. But they saw themselves as loyal servants of the Mughals, and their loyalty to the Mughals would never waver. They quietly withdrew to the sidelines and watched the unfolding spectacle with disgust. Jahandar Shah got supplanted by another Mughal prince Farrukhsiyar, who had both Jahandar Shah and Zulfiqar Khan beheaded. But Farrukhsiyar made one terrible mistake. In his quest for power, he sought the assistance of a conspiratorial Shiite group known as the Sayyid Brothers. Their kinsmen came from a constellation of twelve villages in Uttar Pradesh from which they got their surname Barha (Urdu for twelve). Again, the number twelve is symbolic of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. This mysterious group became powerful in the Mughal nobility under Aurangzeb, falsely claiming to be descendants of the Prophet of Islam. In In my book The Secret History of Iran, I have traced their origin to the European- Illuminati rulers of Byzantium (crypto-Byzantines). They were implanted in India after the invasion of Amir Timur but failed to consolidate after him. And they thus vengefully viewed the Mughals as squatters. While Aurangzeb had fallen for their religiosity, his astute eyes later sensed something dark in them. In his will, Aurangzeb had clearly warned his successors to keep safe distance from them.Hamid al-Din Khan Bahadur, Anecdotes of Aurangzeb 3rd ed. trans. Sir Jadunath Sarkar (Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar, 1949) 89. In other words, Aurangzeb viewed them as a far bigger threat than the Marathas and the Europeans, who are never mentioned in his will. And as events unfolded, Aurangzeb was right. On the other hand, Establishment Historians have worked hard to hide the Sayyid Brothers and other actors involved in the accelerated collapse of the Mughal Empire. Until 2006, there was not even a Wikipedia entry about them. This is because these people are still involved in the political history of the Subcontinent.
In the Mughal period, this group first surfaced under Emperor Akbar. Sayyid Mahmud Khan Barha became a General, and he was closely aligned with the secretive Safavid group represented by Bairam Khan. Akbar soon got wary of Bairam Khan and had him dismissed. But Akbar granted Sayyid Muzaffar Khan Barha an estate in Uttar Pradesh, which his son Munawar Lashkar Khan Barha developed as Muzaffarnagar. All the six sons of Sayyid Mahmud Khan Barha, Sayyid Hashim, Sayyid Qasim, Sayyid Alim, Sayyid Salim, Sayyid Jahangir, and Sayyid Ali Asghar alias Saif Khan Barha became mansabdars. Saif Khan Barha became a favourite of Emperor Jahangir. His sons Sayyed Bahadur Ali and Sayyed Diler Ali were also made mansabdars. In the succession struggle that followed the death of Shahjahan, Sayyid Qasim Barha supported Illuminati candidate Prince Dara Shikoh against Aurangzeb, and even clashed swords with the supporters of Aurangzeb. When Dara was out of the contest, they supported Prince Shuja.Saqi Must’ad Khan, Maasir-i-Alamgiri: A history of the emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir 1658-1707 Translated and annotated by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (Lahore: Suhail academy 1981) 19. But when Aurangzeb started gaining ascendency, Sayyid Qasim Barha, who had become commander of Shuja’s fort at Allahabad defected to Aurangzeb and gave him the keys.Khafi Khan, History of Alamgir: Being an English translation of the relevant portions of Muntakhab al-Lubab with notes and introduction Trans. S. Moinul Haq (Karachi. Pakistan Historical Society. 1975) 66. Upon hearing this, Shuja lost heart and fled.
A certain Sayyid Brother named Sayyid Mian later became a commander of Aurangzeb duriung his siege of Bijapur. He became the first Mughal subedar of the newly conquered province of Bijapur, which hints at some kind of connection between the Sayyid Brothers and the Shiite rulers of Bijapur. It is also interesting to note that the rulers of Bijapur were very vicious in their wars with Mughals, for example, pursuing a scorched earth policy so that Bijapur could never be inhabited by the Mughals.Khafi Khan, History of Alamgir: Being an English translation of the relevant portions of Muntakhab al-Lubab with notes and introduction Trans. S. Moinul Haq (Karachi. Pakistan Historical Society. 1975) 197. His son Sayyid Hasan Ali Khan Barha (titled Khan-i-Jahan, Izzat Khan and Abdullah Khan) infiltrated Aurangzeb’s Deccan campaign early on. There are indications that he and his son Sayyid Lashkar Khan Barha had a secret alliance with the Shiite rulers of Bijapur and that he sought to undermine Aurangzeb’s Deccan campaigns. Aurangzeb had Sayyid Hasan Ali Khan Barha arrested for this in 1682, while other nobles involved in the conspiracy, namely Momin Khan, Najm Sani and Sadiq Khan were dismissed.Athar M. Ali, The Mughal nobility under Aurangzeb Revised ed. (Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1997) 97.
But Sayyid Hasan Ali Khan Barha later secured his release by offering profuse apologies. It seems that Sayyid Hasan Ali Khan Barha had obtained the friendship of prince Bahadur Shah I (alias Muazzam) and used it to put the latter in embarrassing situations. This was because Prince Azam was the Illuminati candidate for the upcoming war of succession. During the Deccan wars, there were incidents where the Sayyid Brothers seemed to have fought battles that served little purpose other than enhancing their prestige, and when faced with the prospect of losing, they entered into secret arrangements with the Marathas and opened the gates of cities for them.Khafi Khan, History of Alamgir: Being an English translation of the relevant portions of Muntakhab al-Lubab with notes and introduction Trans. S. Moinul Haq (Karachi. Pakistan Historical Society. 1975) 452: Note by Moinul Haq. Another incident took place during the reign of Aurangzeb which displayed the diabolical nature of the Sayyids of Barha. One of them was stabbed by another noble and a quarrel broke out in the Imperial camp. Aurangzeb intervened and tried to have the qazi administer justice in Islamic terms. But they refused all offers of justice and settlement and became hell-bent on revenge. Aurangzeb angered by their uppityness remarked,
A group of men who have often been beaten by me and felt my anger, dare give such a reply when asked to conform to the Holy Law! Let as many of them as may be come on in a body.Saqi Must’ad Khan, Maasir-i-Alamgiri: A history of the emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir 1658-1707 Translated and annotated by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (Lahore: Suhail academy 1981) 222.
Aurangzeb then dispatched military commanders such as Hamiduddin Khan against them, and dismissed them from their ranks and withdrew all their privileges. They scurried away, and using intermediaries, began seeking forgiveness and reconciliation with Aurangzeb. They could not afford to walk away from Aurangzeb’s camp, where they drew their lifeblood of intrigue and conspiracy.
Under Farrukhsiyar, Sayyid Hasan Ali Khan Barha (titled Khan-i-Jahan, Izzat Khan and Abdullah Khan; 1666-1722) was joined by his younger brother, Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha (1668-1720).
Farrukhsiyar never intended to be a puppet of the Sayyid Brothers. And once he realized the trap he had walked into, he did his best to resist them. But it was too late. Feroze Jung I had already passed away. His successor Asif Jah I was critical of the Emperor’s alliance with the Sayyid Brothers from the beginning, and this stance distanced him from Farrukhsiyar. And although he still did see himself as a servant of the Emperor, he doubted he had the ability to dislodge the Sayyid Brothers on his own. Farrukhsiyar tried to get Daud Khan Panni to assassinate Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha in the Deccan. Daud Khan was on the verge of a victory against the forces of Hussain Ali, but was mysteriously killed by a bullet in 1715. Secret communications were uncovered between him and Farrukhsiyar.J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 267. Only the Rajput Mirza Raja Jai Singh I of Amber was able to come to the aid of Farrukhsiyar with 20,000 Rajputs.J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 270. In addition, Farrukhsiyar was married to the daughter of the Rajput Maharaja Ajit Singh Rathor of Marwar. While these Rajput allies could not unseat the Sayyid Brothers, their support also protected Farrukhsiyar from their retaliation.
The engines of Mughal prosperity were their agricultural crown lands, which served as refuge for productive peasants who were otherwise exploited by landowners. Here, the peasants could cultivate as they wished, in exchange for parting with a minor portion of the produce at the time of harvest. As soon as they came to power, the Sayyid Brothers had the Mughal Treasury at their disposal, and this was more than enough to finance their long-term intrigues. But yet they started auctioning off these crown agricultural lands to revenue farming thugs. This was because they were dismantling and dissolving the Mughal Empire in preparation for the upcoming British consolidation, and it seems all Illuminati factions had agreed to this well in advance. For a one-time advance payment to the diwan of Sayyid Brothers, a corrupt bania named Ratan Chand, these “revenue farming” thugs could do whatever they wanted to the crown lands (and their peasant cultivators) for a year. But when these thugs put their hands on the crown lands, their exploitation was so thorough that they bleeded these lands (and their peasants) so badly that by the next year, the agricultural crown lands were abandoned by the peasants. And thus, the engines of Mughal prosperity started grinding to a halt, long before the Marathas and the British would enter Delhi. The damage done to the Indian Subcontinent by the Sayyid Brothers could never be undone.
The Sayyid Brothers also settled their mysterious Muslim supporters in the crown lands in Awadh.J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 275. Many of these Muslims were Illuminati families like the Sayyid Brothers. In 1732, one such suspicious person, Saadat Ali Khan I became the first Nawab of Awadh. He was a Shiite who had migrated to India from Khurasan. His successor Safdarjung played an important role in later Illuminati conspiracies against the Mughals.
|↑1||Satish Chandra, “Jizyah and the State in India during the 17th Century,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 12.3 (1969): 140.|
|↑2||J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 236.|
|↑3||J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 235.|
|↑4||J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 246.|
|↑5||Hamid al-Din Khan Bahadur, Anecdotes of Aurangzeb 3rd ed. trans. Sir Jadunath Sarkar (Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar, 1949) 89.|
|↑6||Saqi Must’ad Khan, Maasir-i-Alamgiri: A history of the emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir 1658-1707 Translated and annotated by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (Lahore: Suhail academy 1981) 19.|
|↑7||Khafi Khan, History of Alamgir: Being an English translation of the relevant portions of Muntakhab al-Lubab with notes and introduction Trans. S. Moinul Haq (Karachi. Pakistan Historical Society. 1975) 66.|
|↑8||Khafi Khan, History of Alamgir: Being an English translation of the relevant portions of Muntakhab al-Lubab with notes and introduction Trans. S. Moinul Haq (Karachi. Pakistan Historical Society. 1975) 197.|
|↑9||Athar M. Ali, The Mughal nobility under Aurangzeb Revised ed. (Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1997) 97.|
|↑10||Khafi Khan, History of Alamgir: Being an English translation of the relevant portions of Muntakhab al-Lubab with notes and introduction Trans. S. Moinul Haq (Karachi. Pakistan Historical Society. 1975) 452: Note by Moinul Haq.|
|↑11||Saqi Must’ad Khan, Maasir-i-Alamgiri: A history of the emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir 1658-1707 Translated and annotated by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (Lahore: Suhail academy 1981) 222.|
|↑12||J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 267.|
|↑13||J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 270.|
|↑14||J. F. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993) 275.|
The First Freemason Lodge in India was not at the Gosha Mahal Baradari Hyderabad. It was a grand building built by teh Last Qutub Shahi ruler Tana Shah in 1682 and was donated to teh freemason by Nizam in 1872.
The first lodge was established for the British Military and other authorities in India in 1728 at Fort William Calcutta called Star of the East.
The doors of freemason were opened for Indians in 1775, when Nawab Umdatul Umra of Carnatic opened first lodge in Trichonopoly, in South India.
Please refer Freemasonry in India
Shoukat Ali Khan Hyderabad India
Thanks for this.
The grave of Aurangzeb is in the premises of a Dargah in Khuldabad near aurangabad. there is no tomb over it nor even a structure.
Taj Mahal like structure is in aurangabad, whichis around ten miles away from his grave.
So what you have mentioned about his grave is not correct.
Thank you for the clarification. The Taj Mahal like structure is actually the tomb of his wife. I have corrected.
Gosh !!! what an intellectual article . Very first time I got to read something eloborative on Shah Waliulllah and the reason of his invitation to Abdali. You are incredibly remarkable in presenting the profoundness and minute details on the subject. Are you a historian or have you written any books.
Share your articles or suggest some books on historical India from Muslim rulers point of view. Had enough of Aurangazeb bashing and Muslim rule criticism nowadays around. So was wondering the justification from the other side.
Please do share.
You could take a look at my book The Secret History of Iran. Since the history of medieval Iran is linked to that of India, it does contain a lot of previously undisclosed information on the Mughals and other Indian dynasties as well.
Qasim Rizvi did not escape , he did his prison term and was relocated to Pakistan by the Indian government . I find lots of unsubstantiated facts in your write up.
This is not the official history of Hyderabad State, it is the Conspiracy History of Hyderabad State, where we try to fill in the blanks in the official narrative. Its not for everybody. Do you really think Qasim Rizvi would be let go so leniently?
Hi, certainly, history of Hyderabad is enticing. I have come across a novel “Theft of Nizam’s Gold” by a writer from Hyderabad, Naser Banaqeeb who presented the life of Nizam in a wonderful way. The novel is a gripping tale of bygone era of Nizam, love and mystery of the gold stolen – the history doesn’t have any record of it. Yes, the gold stolen from Nizam’s treasure has no mentioning in any books. But, the author described the same in an artistic manner. The novel is available online at amazon.
Dear Abraiz Ali Khan,
I am based in Mumbai and an avid reader of “authentic” historical books.
I would be much obliged if you could share with me any such books in your possession, including “Tragedy of Hyderabad”.
My contact details are: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hello Mr. Arvind. This is the book I have mentioned: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18360701-tragedy-of-hyderabad
I found it in a Sunday, second-hand book market. Currently, this book is with my brother who lives in Canada. Sorry for not being able to share it.
Dear Mr. Abraiz,
I have a nephew in Canada whom I will be meeting at a family function in October. If you can share with me the contact details of your brother in Canada, my nephew can coordinate with him and photocopy the book and hand it over to me when we meet.
Incidentally I am in Hyderabad on Monday June 25th. I would be very happy to meet with you.
Once again my email id is: email@example.com
Pl visit Haziq and Mohi a book store near Charminar , they have copies . Picked up my copy of Tragedy of Hyderabad and other books on hyderabad from there . The store finds a mention in The Last Nizam by Jhon Zubrcki and is regularly frequented by history buffs , most notable being William Dalrymple , he has given a beautiful account in The White Mughals of William Kirkpatrick the British resident during the end of the 18th century and his affair with Khai un Nissa great niece of Aristu Jah the prime minister at Nizam Ali Khan’s court . He eventually ended up marrying her and converted to Islam . Most of his research work was carried out by literature provided by Haziq and Mohi .
Hello Mr Iyer , you can get the book and many other out of publication books on Hyderabad at Haziq and Mohi book store near Charminar . The store finds a mention in the Last Nizam by Jhon Zubrycki and is frequented by history buffs from India and abroad , most notable being William Darlymple whose book The White mughals revolves around the stories of William Kirkpatrick the british resident at the end of 18th century in Hyderbad and his affair with Khai un Nisa the great niece of Aristu Jah the prime minister of Nizam Ali Khan , which he later marries and converts to Islam .
You may also be interested in The Destruction of Hyderabad by Abdul Gafoor Abdul Majeed Noorani. No idea where to find it though.
Its overwhelming to read this..present day hyderabadis are so ignorant about their past. . I wish many of them could read this
Assalaamualaikum. I am a citizen of Hyderabad itself. Born and brought up here. I do have an interest in our history as well. You have written a very engaging piece of research. Do accept congratulations for it. As it happens, there are a few points that I do disagree with. One is your saying that venerating graves is an “Islamically abhorrent practice.” But maybe you subscribe to one of those sects that see graves as idols, so let it pass. I don’t need to tell you that scholars have compiled voluminous works on this subject. Read them if you will.
The other point that raises my hackles is the flippant description of Jamia Nizamia. As it happens, I am closely related to this institution. All my teachers of Islamic sciences have studied at this institution. Your description of it stems of ignorance or, if you will excuse me for saying so, your prejudice against those venerate graves. Jamia Nizamia was started in 1876 AD. Its founder, who was the teacher (Ataleeq as they called them then) of the 6th and 7th Nizams, passed away in 1917. If you would look into the history of Jamia Nizamia and its scholars, you would see many un-Islamic activities and trends being checked by them. Keep in mind that it was a nascent institution without any power of enforcement. Which means that Jamia Nizamia could only tell that something was wrong and must be stopped, but could not actually go out and stop them. Frankly, there are many firsts the credit of whom goes to Jamia Nizamia and more specifically its founder, Imam Anwarullah Farooqui (May Allah shower His Mercy on him). Hyderabad was the only state to have departments of Qazaath – where marriages, divorces, etc. were registered, the only state to outlaw reprehensible Hindu customs like Murli, etc., the only state to have standardized weights, possibly the only state or one of the very few which trained people with a standardized syllabus to administer basic Islamic laws to the populace. The State Central Library (earlier known as Asafjahi Library) was established at the behest of Shaykh Anwaarullah. No, they were nor politically active. As I said, it was a nascent institution, just started. Maybe in time, if Hyderabad state would have been there, they would have played a greater role.
The best part about your piece is that you give sources. I do have some of the books like Tragedy of Hyderabad with me. I will surely read up as much as I can the source books that you quote and see your point of view in much broader and richer detail.
Best of luck for your future research.
Thank you for the additional info on Jamia Nizamia. While I do accept that Jamia Nizamia did in fact play a positive role, I believe that the fact that it was an official institution limited and hindered its ability to fulfill its role in a more wholesome manner. For example, they could not critic the sponsorship and inclusion of Shiite practices of later Nizams. And by and large, they did fail to enlighten the Muslim population, as evidenced by the level of ignorance and the incorporation of non-Islamic practices into Islam by the common people. If The Powers That Be were serious about Islam, they would have supported it more thoroughly, perhaps with a budget much bigger than the war aid they gave to Britain. As you mentioned, they started doing so, but it was too little, and too late.
In Islamic history, Muslim groups attain political power only when they start imposing and reinstating the natural order of things. Otherwise nature overcomes them. Towards the end, the Nizams began failing to maintain their holistic connection to the Mystery Saint.
Dude you are awesome. Where you been?
Do you have any recommendation for occult conspiracy sites with muslim perspective?
The main reason why it’s so hard to find this is the cultural lag muslim readers annnd writers have due to the ravages of colonialism westernization and the like. In the world that emerged after ww2 seems the only ticket for indians and muslims to prosper in the west was the sci/tech route. So as a fractured bordered nation, there was not much literal development.
For example most muslims i know go as far as saying 911 was ‘possibly’ a conspiracy and that Kanye or whoever is a free mason, and that’s as far as it goes. They will never include the saudis or big banks or the company they work for.
Anyway look forward to reading your next masterpiece.
The only “Islamic” Conspiracy website that I find worth a mention is that of David Livingstone> http://www.conspiracyschool.com/