The Secret History of Hyderabad State of the Nizam (South India; 1724 – 1948)

Last Updated on July 15, 2021 by Hamad Subani

The Obliteration of Rohilkhand and the Devastation of Rajputana

The Third Battle of Panipat suddenly changed the fortune of Shah Alam II, who up till then was a fugitive. Shah Alam II was now recognized by the Durranis as the new Mughal Emperor. The British, seeing that they would eventually draw the Durranis into Bengal and end up being ousted, suddenly sued for peace. The British dismissed Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal, and replaced him with the Mughal friendly Mir Qasim. They concluded a treaty with Shah Alam II. The main condition of this treaty was that he would not return to Delhi, and instead spend his time in Alllahabad under the auspices of Shuja ud-Daula. This was to prevent the Durranis and the Rohillas, in particular, Najib ud-Daula, from gaining legitimacy and becoming powerful representatives of Shah Alam II, reviving and consolidating the Mughal Empire in the wake of the massive victory achieved at Panipat. As soon as the Chitpavani Peshwas recuperated their losses and the Marathas re-emerged as a confederacy, the British abandoned paying tribute to Shah Alam II, thereby nullifying the treaty. By then Mahadji Scindia, the Maratha ruler of Gwalior had captured Delhi (1771). Shah Alam II left Allahabad for Delhi after twelve years. But the Powers That Be never sought to restore Shah Alam II to power. He would be escorted by Mahadji Scindia, and would be used as a puppet of the Chitpavani Peshwas. This was necessary because Zabita Khan, the son and successor of Panipat hero Najib ud-Daula had already been given the post of Mir Bakshi of Shah Alam II. The Rohillas were on the rise and now constituted the biggest support base of the Mughals, and the Powers That Be intended to sabotage them at all cost.

It seems that The Powers That Be were seeking to eliminate the Mughal line and destroy the Mughal Empire through the Nawabs of Awadh and the Chitpavani Peshwas, right before the British consolidated. Since these groups were local to India, having them carry out this abomination would make it look less like a conspiracy hatched overseas, and it would even be more palatable with some Indian people. But the Durranis and the Rohillas had seriously disabled the power of their biggest player, the Marathas. With Abdali having long left for Afghanistan, the Rohillas of Rohilkhand became the focal point of the rage of the Illuminati conspirators.

The Obliteration of Rohilkhand

Warren Hastings conducted acts of genocide against the Rohillas, which have been completely whitewashed from history texts.
Warren Hastings conducted acts of genocide against the Rohillas, which have been completely whitewashed from history texts.

One of the first things the Chitpavani Peshwas would accomplish through Shah Alam II was having him unseat Zabita Khan. Then the Mughals and their Maratha units would combat Zabita Khan. Mahadji Scindia would personally lead the devastation Rohilkhand and even desecrated the grave of Najib ud-Daula. But this campaign would come to an abrupt end after the Maratha armies were forced to withdraw from the North in 1773 after the murder of Narayan Rao Peshwa in Pune. In the absence of the Marathas, the Illuminati intrigues at the Mughal court would be handled by a man connected to the Nawabs of Awadh, Mirza Najaf Khan. He was once was a deputy vizier of Awadh. His sister had married into the Nawabs of Awadh. He had played in important role in sabotaging potential victories of Shah Alam II in his early campaigns against the British. Mirza Najaf Khan emerged as the commander of the Mughal army. Shah Alam II’s stay in Allahabad had changed him for the worse. He was no longer the prince on horseback fighting pitched battles against the British. During his stay in Allahabad, the Nawabs of Awadh had hooked him onto wine, women and nautch girls. Unlike previous Mughal rulers, even the weaklings like Farrukhsiyar who viciously fought back against intriguers, Shah Alam II became very apathetic. In fact, the Shah Alam II who emerged from Allahabad was so different from the previous one that some wondered that the Nawab of Awadh had put in a substitute puppet. With the Marathas no longer available to devastate Rohilkhand, Awadh went to war against Rohilkhand, joined by the East India Company. Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech was killed in 1774 and all of Rohilkhand came under British occupation. Many Rohillas fled across the Ganges into the dense forests on the other side. The British under Warren Hastings followed them and engaged in ethic cleansing and genocide to fully destroy them. Later, the British would set up a Shiite princely state named Rampur on the area of Rohilkhand. Some of the rulers of this princely state have been associated with Illuminati activity. For example, Nawab Raza Ali Khan (1908-1966) became the head of the Freemasons in India as the first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of India. Another figure named Muhammad Ali Jauhar (1878-1931) worked as an administrator for Rampur State and the princely state of Baroda before he would go on to become a major figure in the Muslim League, which would induce the Partition of India. He is known for alienating Muslims from Mahatma Gandhi by scaring them into believing that Gandhi was some kind of closet Hindu extremist who would later change his agenda. Interestingly, he would die at the rather young age of 52 and chose to be buried in Jerusalem. Some believe he started a new life there as a Zionist.

An Indian postage stamp commemorating the Grand Lodge of India.
An Indian postage stamp commemorating the Grand Lodge of India.
Nawab Raza Ali Khan of Rampur was involved in Illuminati activity.
Nawab Raza Ali Khan of Rampur was involved in Illuminati activity.

The apathy of Shah Alam II would come to bite him back. During the earlier campaign against Zabita Khan, the entire family of Zabita Khan was arrested and severely humiliated. His son and successor Ghulam Qadir Rohilla was castrated and and made to serve as a page in the palace. Embittered by the apathy of Shah Alam II, he soon captured Delhi with the assistance of Sikhs and blinded and tortured Shah Alam II. Ghulam Qadir Rohilla was quite surprised by how apathetic these new Mughals had become, compared to their predecessors who viciously fought off conspirators like the Sayyid Brothers. At one point he remarked that they had lost all sense of self respect. Mahadji Scindia returned to prevent the Rohillas from re-establishing themselves. After a token staged battle with the British in 1803, the Marathas would surrender Delhi to the British. 54 years later, the British would put an end to the Mughals. Despite the fact that Shah Alam II had become a disgrace to the Mughals, the last two Mughal Emperors who followed him were dignified personalities, who did their best to passively oppose the British.

The Devastation of Rajputana

The main Rajput states of Amber/Jaipur and Marwar/Jodhpur were historical allies of the Mughals. With Rohilkhand out of the equation, Rajputana was the only potential Mughal support base that remained.

When the genius Jai Singh II of Amber/Jaipur died in 1743, the Marathas interfered for the first time ever in Rajput politics by having one group of Marathas back one son (Ishwari Singh) and another group of Marathas back another son (Madho Singh). But they failed to split the kingdom when Ishwari Singh committed suicide. The successor Madho Singh soon went to war against the Marathas, driving them out of his state, only to have them invade again. In 1749, Abhai Singh of Marwar/Jodhpur died and the the Marathas interfered by backing one of his sons (Ram Singh). The other claimant (Bijaya Singh) sought assistance from the Mughals and Madho Singh, resulting in further hostilities against the Marathas.

While the Rajputs did not (or could not?) send contingents to the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, they did pledge their support for Ahmed Shah Abdali and the Mughals.

After the accession of Shah Alam II in 1787, an embassy of Bijaya Singh from Jodhpur presented itself to the Mughal Emperor, bringing along the golden key of the Fortress of Ajmer. The envoy explained that he was instructed by his masters Bijaya Singh (Marwar/Jodhpur), Pratab Singh (Amber/Jaipur) and the Kachwaha Dhiraj of Jaipur to present the golden key as a token of their wish that the Mughal army personally led by Shah Alam II should march to take complete possession of the Empire once again. During this period, only the Rajputs of Jaipur and Jodhpur had the strength and potential to revive the Mughal Empire. It was widely assumed that they would step in and take charge. But as the British began finalizing their plans to knock out the Mughals for good, preparations were made to deal with Rajputana well in advance, the last bastion of support for the Mughals. In 1790, a Maratha force led by the mysterious European General de Boigne clashed with the Rajputs and annihilated them in an ambush. Like many Mughal victories that were turned to routs by internal conspirators, the battle of Patan (as this event became known) also leaves several unanswered questions. But they are beyond the scope of this article. It is important to note that while General de Boigne was French, he had letters of recommendation from the British in Egypt, and he was treated very courteously by the East India Company on Indian soil. He was also received by the Nawab of Awadh when he first came to India. He would later retire to London. From 1790 to 1818, the Marathas carried out a policy of deliberate economic devastation of Rajputana. This was intended to destroy their economies and prevent them from raising armies ever again. Rather than contenting themselves with collecting chauth, these manoeuvres battered the Rajputs into accepting the Subsiidiary Alliance System of the British. In 1818, Jaipur became a vassal state of the British by entering into the Subsidiary Alliance System.

And thus the Rajputs were robbed of a once-in-a-bluemoon chance of succeeding the Mughals as rulers of the Subcontinent.

Even the most powerful Mughal Emperors respected the sovereignty of the Rajputs, who were an ancient force in Indian politics. During the reign of Aurangzeb, they represented up to 30% of Mughal forces who engaged in combat in the Deccan. In some of the military disasters that took place in the Deccan, their soldiers would be cremated as per their religious norms, piled up on massive bonfires, adjacent to the mass graves of fallen Muslim soldiers. They could have captured Delhi long before the Marathas set foot in it. But that was not their nature. They had assimilated Mughal warfare, Mughal administration, Mughal culture and even Mughal architecture to such an extent that the people of North India rightly saw them as successors to the Mughals. But within a short span 30 years, they were economically devastated and clobbered into becoming vassals of the British. Thereafter, they would exit the political history of India and drag along only as allies of the British. And thus the Rajputs were robbed of a once-in-a-bluemoon chance of succeeding the Mughals as rulers of the Subcontinent.

Role of the Nawabs of Awadh and the Chitpavani Peshwas in the Rebellion of 1857 Conspiracy

An Indian stamp commemorating the 1857 Rebellion.
An Indian stamp commemorating the 1857 Rebellion.

With the Rohillas obliterated and Rajputana devasted, nothing now stood between the Illuminati and the Mughals anymore. Instead of peacefully retiring the Mughals as titular heads, the Illuminati sought to create a “clash of civilizations” that would be used to conveniently bury all that remained of the Indo-Islamic civilization that the Mughals had nurtured. They would then rebuild the society of the Subcontinent on their own terms. In order to do this, it was necessary to first foment discontent and then provide the Mughals with armed British sepoys, who would go to war against the British, giving the British their much awaited opportunity for full scale war against all remnants of Mughal India. While it is true that most Indians answered the call of 1857 with the most sincere intentions and sacrifices, the struggle was rigged from the beginning to the end. It thus becomes necessary to give the figures and instigators associated with 1857 a closer look, especially those who survived, and those who were never apprehended by the British.

Another Indian stamp commemorating the 1857 Rebellion. But with emphasis on the last Peshwa and the last Nawab of Awadh (his mother Begum Hazrat Mahal).
Another Indian stamp commemorating the 1857 Rebellion. But with emphasis on the last Peshwa and the last Nawab of Awadh (his mother Begum Hazrat Mahal).

We discover that both the last Chitpavani Peshwa Nana Sahib, and the last Nawab of Awadh Birjis Qadr (and his mother, Begum Hazrat Mahal), were prime instigators of the events of 1857. Nana Sahib surfaced in the unnecessary massacre of British civilians and soldiers at Kanpur. And this would further inflame tensions between the two groups. While Birjis Qadr (and his mother, Begum Hazrat Mahal) got Muslims emotionally riled up into supporting the Rebellion. Both would disappear towards the end of the rebellion. And the British didn’t seem to be interested in their whereabouts, although it is clear they both retired in Nepal. Subsequent events would result in both the Maratha Confederacy and the Awadh being absorbed into the British Empire. But this does not mean that the conspiratorial groups within these states had been weakened. To the contrary, they had gone underground. The entire Subcontinent which had come under Illuminati control with British colonization was now their playground. They no longer needed personal fiefdoms. A century later, the British would divide the Indian Subcontinent on dubious religious grounds. Both of these groups played a secretive but key role in moving public support in this direction. In the 19th century, elements connected to the Peshwas began experimenting with communal riots involving common people for the first time ever. One of the first venues of such communal riots would not be their traditional strongholds such as Goa, Indore, Ujjain, Gwalior and Baroda, but Kolhapur. This was home to Shivaji’s descendants from the line of Tarabai, rivals of the Chitpavanis.

When India and Pakistan would become independent, the Powers That Be wanted to bury the newly formed Congress government and foment a war between India and Pakistan. The biggest obstacle to war was Mahatma Gandhi, who was killed by a Chitpavani, with a gun that was sourced from the Maratha princely state of Gwalior. During the investigation of the assassination, it was discovered that several princely states were involved in a secret movement to overthrow the Congress government of India. Prominent among these princely states were Gwalior, Baroda and Bhopal.[1]Tushar A. Gandhi, ‘Let’s Kill Gandhi’ (New Delhi: Rupa & Co. 2009) 785, 865. During British rule, the Peshwa capital of Pune would transform into a hub of British Intelligence. Post Independence, the first ever attempt at computerizing the identity of Indian nationals (The PAN card, a precursor to the Aadhar card) would have its databases headquartered in Pune. There is also a theory that that the Babri Mosque controversy, which threatened the professed secularism of the Indian government, was originally seeded by the Nawabs of Awadh (Ayodhya was under their jurisdiction). While establishment historians often portray them as champions of the multicultural Ganga-Jamuna culture of the Mughals, they were probably hard at work dismantling it. Recently, a plot to partition the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh was uncovered[2]Vishwadeepak, “Fazed by Mahagathbandhan, BJP mulls breaking UP into four,” National Herald, 13/09/18, and it seems that this was being accomplished by accelerating communal tensions. Of the four states planned out of the partition, one is called Awadh Pradesh and its capital will be Lucknow. It is literally based on the territory of the Nawabs of Awadh. It is likely that the Muslim population of Uttar Pradesh will be concentrated in this area after the partition, and communal tensions will give them no option but to migrate to Awadh Pradesh and settle there. Once the Indian Union becomes weaker, descendants of the Nawabs of Awadh, who are currently British Lords, are expected to fly back to India and resume control of their kingdom. Some of them are already rumored to be operating in that region.


1 Tushar A. Gandhi, ‘Let’s Kill Gandhi’ (New Delhi: Rupa & Co. 2009) 785, 865.
2 Vishwadeepak, “Fazed by Mahagathbandhan, BJP mulls breaking UP into four,” National Herald, 13/09/18
Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

20 Responses

  1. Shoukat Ali KhanNo Gravatar says:

    The First Freemason Lodge in India was not at the Gosha Mahal Baradari Hyderabad. It was a grand building built by teh Last Qutub Shahi ruler Tana Shah in 1682 and was donated to teh freemason by Nizam in 1872.
    The first lodge was established for the British Military and other authorities in India in 1728 at Fort William Calcutta called Star of the East.
    The doors of freemason were opened for Indians in 1775, when Nawab Umdatul Umra of Carnatic opened first lodge in Trichonopoly, in South India.
    Please refer Freemasonry in India

    Shoukat Ali Khan Hyderabad India

  2. Shoukat Ali KhanNo Gravatar says:

    The grave of Aurangzeb is in the premises of a Dargah in Khuldabad near aurangabad. there is no tomb over it nor even a structure.
    Taj Mahal like structure is in aurangabad, whichis around ten miles away from his grave.
    So what you have mentioned about his grave is not correct.

  3. Noble_vikingNo Gravatar says:

    Gosh !!! what an intellectual article . Very first time I got to read something eloborative on Shah Waliulllah and the reason of his invitation to Abdali. You are incredibly remarkable in presenting the profoundness and minute details on the subject. Are you a historian or have you written any books.
    Share your articles or suggest some books on historical India from Muslim rulers point of view. Had enough of Aurangazeb bashing and Muslim rule criticism nowadays around. So was wondering the justification from the other side.
    Please do share.

  4. Utsav KumarNo Gravatar says:

    Qasim Rizvi did not escape , he did his prison term and was relocated to Pakistan by the Indian government . I find lots of unsubstantiated facts in your write up.

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      This is not the official history of Hyderabad State, it is the Conspiracy History of Hyderabad State, where we try to fill in the blanks in the official narrative. Its not for everybody. Do you really think Qasim Rizvi would be let go so leniently?

  5. MarkNo Gravatar says:

    Hi, certainly, history of Hyderabad is enticing. I have come across a novel “Theft of Nizam’s Gold” by a writer from Hyderabad, Naser Banaqeeb who presented the life of Nizam in a wonderful way. The novel is a gripping tale of bygone era of Nizam, love and mystery of the gold stolen – the history doesn’t have any record of it. Yes, the gold stolen from Nizam’s treasure has no mentioning in any books. But, the author described the same in an artistic manner. The novel is available online at amazon.

  6. Arvind SirNo Gravatar says:

    Dear Abraiz Ali Khan,

    I am based in Mumbai and an avid reader of “authentic” historical books.
    I would be much obliged if you could share with me any such books in your possession, including “Tragedy of Hyderabad”.
    My contact details are:

    Warm regards,

    Arvind Iyer

    • AbraizNo Gravatar says:

      Hello Mr. Arvind. This is the book I have mentioned:

      I found it in a Sunday, second-hand book market. Currently, this book is with my brother who lives in Canada. Sorry for not being able to share it.

    • ARVIND IYERNo Gravatar says:

      Dear Mr. Abraiz,
      I have a nephew in Canada whom I will be meeting at a family function in October. If you can share with me the contact details of your brother in Canada, my nephew can coordinate with him and photocopy the book and hand it over to me when we meet.
      Incidentally I am in Hyderabad on Monday June 25th. I would be very happy to meet with you.
      Once again my email id is:

      Warm Regards,
      Arvind Iyer

      • philasapperNo Gravatar says:

        Pl visit Haziq and Mohi a book store near Charminar , they have copies . Picked up my copy of Tragedy of Hyderabad and other books on hyderabad from there . The store finds a mention in The Last Nizam by Jhon Zubrcki and is regularly frequented by history buffs , most notable being William Dalrymple , he has given a beautiful account in The White Mughals of William Kirkpatrick the British resident during the end of the 18th century and his affair with Khai un Nissa great niece of Aristu Jah the prime minister at Nizam Ali Khan’s court . He eventually ended up marrying her and converted to Islam . Most of his research work was carried out by literature provided by Haziq and Mohi .

      • philasapperNo Gravatar says:

        Hello Mr Iyer , you can get the book and many other out of publication books on Hyderabad at Haziq and Mohi book store near Charminar . The store finds a mention in the Last Nizam by Jhon Zubrycki and is frequented by history buffs from India and abroad , most notable being William Darlymple whose book The White mughals revolves around the stories of William Kirkpatrick the british resident at the end of 18th century in Hyderbad and his affair with Khai un Nisa the great niece of Aristu Jah the prime minister of Nizam Ali Khan , which he later marries and converts to Islam .

      • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

        You may also be interested in The Destruction of Hyderabad by Abdul Gafoor Abdul Majeed Noorani. No idea where to find it though.

  7. sameeraNo Gravatar says:

    Its overwhelming to read this..present day hyderabadis are so ignorant about their past. . I wish many of them could read this

  8. Abraiz Ali KhanNo Gravatar says:

    Assalaamualaikum. I am a citizen of Hyderabad itself. Born and brought up here. I do have an interest in our history as well. You have written a very engaging piece of research. Do accept congratulations for it. As it happens, there are a few points that I do disagree with. One is your saying that venerating graves is an “Islamically abhorrent practice.” But maybe you subscribe to one of those sects that see graves as idols, so let it pass. I don’t need to tell you that scholars have compiled voluminous works on this subject. Read them if you will.

    The other point that raises my hackles is the flippant description of Jamia Nizamia. As it happens, I am closely related to this institution. All my teachers of Islamic sciences have studied at this institution. Your description of it stems of ignorance or, if you will excuse me for saying so, your prejudice against those venerate graves. Jamia Nizamia was started in 1876 AD. Its founder, who was the teacher (Ataleeq as they called them then) of the 6th and 7th Nizams, passed away in 1917. If you would look into the history of Jamia Nizamia and its scholars, you would see many un-Islamic activities and trends being checked by them. Keep in mind that it was a nascent institution without any power of enforcement. Which means that Jamia Nizamia could only tell that something was wrong and must be stopped, but could not actually go out and stop them. Frankly, there are many firsts the credit of whom goes to Jamia Nizamia and more specifically its founder, Imam Anwarullah Farooqui (May Allah shower His Mercy on him). Hyderabad was the only state to have departments of Qazaath – where marriages, divorces, etc. were registered, the only state to outlaw reprehensible Hindu customs like Murli, etc., the only state to have standardized weights, possibly the only state or one of the very few which trained people with a standardized syllabus to administer basic Islamic laws to the populace. The State Central Library (earlier known as Asafjahi Library) was established at the behest of Shaykh Anwaarullah. No, they were nor politically active. As I said, it was a nascent institution, just started. Maybe in time, if Hyderabad state would have been there, they would have played a greater role.

    The best part about your piece is that you give sources. I do have some of the books like Tragedy of Hyderabad with me. I will surely read up as much as I can the source books that you quote and see your point of view in much broader and richer detail.

    Best of luck for your future research.


    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Thank you for the additional info on Jamia Nizamia. While I do accept that Jamia Nizamia did in fact play a positive role, I believe that the fact that it was an official institution limited and hindered its ability to fulfill its role in a more wholesome manner. For example, they could not critic the sponsorship and inclusion of Shiite practices of later Nizams. And by and large, they did fail to enlighten the Muslim population, as evidenced by the level of ignorance and the incorporation of non-Islamic practices into Islam by the common people. If The Powers That Be were serious about Islam, they would have supported it more thoroughly, perhaps with a budget much bigger than the war aid they gave to Britain. As you mentioned, they started doing so, but it was too little, and too late.

      In Islamic history, Muslim groups attain political power only when they start imposing and reinstating the natural order of things. Otherwise nature overcomes them. Towards the end, the Nizams began failing to maintain their holistic connection to the Mystery Saint.

  9. SirajNo Gravatar says:

    Dude you are awesome. Where you been?
    Do you have any recommendation for occult conspiracy sites with muslim perspective?
    The main reason why it’s so hard to find this is the cultural lag muslim readers annnd writers have due to the ravages of colonialism westernization and the like. In the world that emerged after ww2 seems the only ticket for indians and muslims to prosper in the west was the sci/tech route. So as a fractured bordered nation, there was not much literal development.
    For example most muslims i know go as far as saying 911 was ‘possibly’ a conspiracy and that Kanye or whoever is a free mason, and that’s as far as it goes. They will never include the saudis or big banks or the company they work for.
    Anyway look forward to reading your next masterpiece.

At Cabal Times, we welcome open, uncensored discussion. Please do contribute....