The Secret History of the Penal Settlement on Andaman Islands, and a small list of Prisoners

Last Updated on January 1, 2023 by Hamad Subani

Long before Guantanamo Bay was developed as a no-escape prison, the British began setting up an island prison on the Andaman island. They had just established themselves in the Subcontinent, and were busy dealing with thousands of freedom fighters. British plans for “penal settlement” go all the way back to 1856, though the Cellular Jail started being constructed later in 1896. This essay originally started as a copy-paste of an extremely hard to find list of Indian “political prisoners” housed in the Cellular Jail. Due to the overwhelming popularity the original article received, it has now been rewritten, with fresh inputs and information from some authoritative books on the subject.

First and foremost, let’s remember that the “British Empire” was more Phoenician than British, and should therefore be seen as a continuing Phoenician op in the region, as opposed to British colonization. Indeed Phoenicians had conquered and colonized India in Ancient times, although it seems the Mughals had interrupted their control. And being seafarers, Phoenicians always had intricate knowledge of islands. In fact, the Andaman islands are mentioned in the works of Ptolemy, who was again Egyptian-Phoenician.[1]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 6. The islands were conquered by the Chola Kingdom of South India towards the end of the 10th Century, and the Cholas were again, crypto-Phoenicians, carrying the same Phoenician seafaring traditions. When the British came, they named an important bay next to their main settlement at Port Blair as Phoenix Bay. The Phoenix is a not-so-subtle nod to Phoenicians.

The First Penal Settlements in the Andaman Islands

European colonization initially started with the Jesuits in 1711.[2]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 7. but they abandoned it because of the harsh weather. Port Blair was established later by Lord Cornwallis, the Governor General of India in 1789.[3]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 9. And it seems the penal settlement was named Kalapani as a psychological gimmick for Hindus. To quote,

The British military doctors had admired the penal settlement unveiled by the French six years earlier on a rocky islet off Guyana. But their Devil’s Island would be far more ambitious. The doctors consulted Hindu texts and decided to create a psychological gulag based around the Sanskrit term kalapani. It literally meant “black water”, but kalapani was also a myth, an ancient Indian story that told how the faithful were parted from their souls by crossing the sea. The doctors knew that kalapani would be feared across the Empire as a godless place, a journey that would strip the transported of their caste, community and creed. [4]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.

The Andaman Islands

270 Indian convicts were brought in, along with 550 Bengali settlers. Apparently, these were needed to clear the jungles. [5]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 10. But Port Blair was later abandoned due to harsh weather conditions, and the convicts and the settlers were relocated elsewhere. The plan for a penal settlement was revived by the British in October 1856.[6]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 14. This was seven months before the Rebellion of 1857. This confirms my theory that 1857 was an inside job, and the British were already planning where to relocate large number of prisoners long before.

The plan for a penal settlement was revived by the British in October 1856. This was seven months before the Rebellion of 1857. This confirms my theory that 1857 was an inside job, and the British were already planning where to relocate large number of prisoners long before.

Prisoners at work clearing a mangrove swamp.
The 2017 movie Papilon is based on the authentic account of a French convict who escaped a French penal colony. It is a must watch if you want to get a feel of what life in the penal settlement in the Andamans was like.

Prior to the establishment of a penal colony in Andaman island, the British already had several penal settlements up and running a long time before at Fort Marlborough in Sumatra, Penang, Mauritius, Malacca, Singapore, Arakan and Tenasserim[7]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 13. which were already taking in loads of Indian convicts. In fact, some believe that these forts were constructed using the free labour of Indian convicts. One Maratha rebel  was sent to Aden where he died and another Muslim intellectual was briefly imprisoned in faraway Malta. It seems the Phoenicians had become so addicted to using Indian convicts as free labour that the French branch of Phoenicians (who did not have access to Indian convicts) promptly deported thousands of convicted French citizens to establish a colony in South America in 1852. This practice of using French convicts for free, brutish labour would continue till 1946, and we only happen to know about it because one escaped convict wrote a telling memoir.

The whole concept of penal settlements was a Phoenician invention. It was their tradition to enslave free people and chain their feet to the benches of their galleys, so that they could be whipped into rowing their boats. For Phoenicians, any person convicted and losing his rights was a great opportunity for free, unpaid slave labour. Prior to the British, the Mughals had ruled North India for 331 years. And they did not construct a single major jail or “penal settlement.” Their concept of justice was that a criminal or a rebel was to be punished immediately, and was not to be converted into a lifetime source of free, unpaid labour.

In March 1858, 200 convicts[8]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 15. (or political prisoners of the failed 1857 Rebellion) accompanied by numerous British officials landed once again at Port Blair, under the direction of a British Navy officer, Dr. Walker. Dr. Walker established his HQ at Ross Island, and the convicts were spread across barracks in Ross Island, Chatham Island and Viper Island. All convicts were put to work clearing the jungles and erecting buildings. Female convicts were also received later on, but they were eligible for domestic employment and marriage after five years of settlement.[9]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 17. They were housed in separate barracks. It seems this initial settlement was particularly disastrous, with a 24% mortality rate on the island itself.[10]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 55. Many prisoners ended up being killed by aborigines while working because the British did not guard them for fear of their firearms falling into the hands of the convicts.[11]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 56.

The doctor was finally removed from the penal project on October 3, 1859, shortly after he had proposed branding the convicts’ forearms with their crime and sentence. Conditions worsened even more after him. Within four years, 3,500 out of 8,000 transportees had been killed or had died of fever, a staggering mortality rate that prompted an investigation. When Sir Robert Napier arrived in Port Blair, he found the scene “beyond comprehension”. An “air of depression and despondency” clung to the islands. Why did the prisoners have no shelter, clothes or food? Only on Ross Island, where the new superintendent, Colonel RC Tytler, had settled with his wife Harriet, was there a thriving community – a European shop, turf, flowers, shrubs and a fine sandy beach. [12]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.

Dr. Walker narrowly escaped being killed in an uprising of some five hundred mainly Punjabi-Muslim criminal convicts, who had plotted to overthrow the British on the islands. After this incident, the handcuffs of prisoners were never unlocked again, even during work.[13]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 54. Dr. Walker was replaced by Captain Haughton in 1859. He was succeeded by an interesting crypto-Phoenician named Robert Tytler. Here is what Wikipedia says about him:

In May 1857, at the beginning of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Tytler was present when the sepoys of his own unit mutinied against their British officers at Delhi, where he later played a conspicuous part in the ensuing siege. He and his wife were among the important photographers present in the aftermath of Indian Mutiny of 1857, which included Felice Beato and Charles Shepard, during the time he took the notable last image of last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II. He was eventually promoted to Colonel and appointed officiating Superintendent of the Convict Settlement at Port Blair in the Andaman Islands from April 1862 to February 1864.  Tytler’s short service here was due to the murder of an English sailor and the subsequent turn of events. Tytler’s predecessor Colonel J.C. Haughton who replaced J.P. Walker had restored peace after the violent clashes with the Andamanese (including the so-called Battle of Aberdeen). To maintain the peace Tytler had continued a policy of sending small parties of sailors to the Andamanese habitations. On one such visit, a sailor named Pratt had attempted to rape an Andamanese woman and two natives killed him in an ensuing fight. Tytler heard a version from other sailors and sought to take revenge on the Andaman tribals and eventually the two suspects were caught. The Government of India was unhappy with Tytler’s actions and noted that “if when the unfortunate seaman was shot, two or three of the Natives had been instantly seized as hostages instead of indiscriminate fire being begun upon a party of savages among whom women were present, the interest of humanity and civilisation would have been better consulted.” When the two suspects who were nicknamed Snowball and Jumbo were captured in February 1863, it became clear that the fault had been with Pratt. The two were eventually released and Jumbo’s wife (nicknamed Topsy) visited the prisoners and helped convince the other Andamanese that the men had been kept unharmed. These results convinced Tytler and Rev Henry Fisher Corbyn to set up a Home for the Andamanese with the aim of “civilising” them. While posted in the Andamans in 1858, he introduced 25 red avadavats into the wild in Port Blair, but the birds died out. His first wife, Isabella née Neilson, whom he married in 1843 died aged 21 in 1847. In the following year on Tytler married Harriet Christina Earle (3 October 1828 – 24 November 1907), daughter of an officer in the 3rd Bengal Native Infantry. She had an interest in photography, which she learnt from Dr John Murray and Felice Beato. Shortly after the 1857 rebellion, Harriet who made a narrow escape had a son who was named Stanley Delhi-Force.

So they are actually Stanleys, the Phoenicians who run the British Empire.

Lt. Colonel Barnet Ford was the next Superintendent, and he was succeeded by General Henry Mann. It was during his tenure that the visiting Viceroy and Governor General of India, Lord Mayo, got assassinated by a Pathan convict named Sher Ali when paying a visit to the islands.

Prisoners being fed lunch at the Andaman Islands.

In 1877, there was a strange outbreak of measles in which half of the population[14]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 18. of the Andamanese perished. Note that the Phoenicians have been doing this for some time (For example, giving the blankets of smallpox-infected people to American natives). Another theory is that they had perished because of syphilis. To quote,

By 1866, the penal colony’s authorities recorded that the Andamanese tribes were “dying in large numbers”. By 1870, the cause was found to be syphilis, introduced by the rapist. Eight years later, after measles, flu, tobacco, opium and whisky had swept out of the European settlement and into the jungle, more than half of the 5,000-strong tribal population was dead. [15]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.

In 1879, Major T. Cadell was appointed as the Superintendent. It was during his tenure that some humane rules were established. For example, a convict who had completed ten years in labour could settle on the island and even marry a female convict. But this practice lasted only a few years. [16]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 19.

Secret Pharmaceutical Trials

To quote,

And tucked between the pages are government approvals for secret pharmaceutical trials: “From the Secretary to the Government of India, Simla, June 24th 1880, despatch 197, to Dr J Reid, Senior Medical Officer, Port Blair: Regarding a new drug, cinchona alkaloid, the experimental use is very desirable… and should be confined to 1,000 convicts.”

Dr Reid’s sample group was force-fed “three grains a day” until they started to sicken. “Convict 25276. Observed on 22 March 1881. In a weak state. Bloodless. Tongue large, pale and flabby. Diarrhoea. Dead in two days.”

Cinchona was a tree imported to Asia from Peru whose bark would later be distilled to make quinine, an effective and natural anti-malarial. But the rough preparation and dosage experimented with by the prison doctors caused acute side effects: nausea and diarrhoea. It was also a depressant. In monthly reports for the period of the test, the chief commissioner, Lieutenant-Colonel T Cadell, observed “a remarkable increase in suicides”. Convicts “weary of life” were literally hacking each other to pieces, hoping to secure the death penalty. But Cadell had a solution: “Flogging and a reduced diet.” Everyone under the age of 22 was now required to sleep in “a sort of trellis-work cage”. [17]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.

Interestingly, William Merk was the Superintendent of Port Blair in 1903. The Merks/Mercks are an industrial family specializing in Pharmaceuticals. And yes, they later specialized in a Cinchona project!.

In his memoir, V. D. Savarkar mentions that he was given the rather comfy position of the Chief of the Quinine factory of the prison hospital of Yerawada Central Jail in Pune in 1923, indicating that such projects were also present in other jails of British India as well.[18]Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 376-377.

Work as Punishment

The prisoners were given the hard work of clearing out these dense jungles for the British authorities. Some say they were also tasked with building secret tunnel complexes at Ross Island.

At other times, they were given dreary work such as coir-pounding, rope making and grinding seeds for oil using very primitive equipment that required many times the normal effort.

It comes as no surprise that some daredevil convicts who managed to escape to smaller islands in the Andamans even attempted to escape back to the Indian mainland, trusting the winds! To quote,

[….] the convicts who free from the island attempt to return to their native land on rafts of bamboos which they cut from the jungles. They take some wheat flour and water inside the hollow of a bamboo (which is afterwards opened to take it out) and trust themselves to the uncertain mercy of the winds and waves. If the Wind is favourable and their stars are lucky and they manage to evade the steamer which Government keeps navigating around the shores to detect such runaway convicts, they may reach the coast of Madras or Burma. Many perish in the attempt, and many of landing are re-arrested on the report of the village watchman. But some manage to escape. To throw oneself without mast or sail on the broad ocean for weeks or even months together in order to go back to one’s country is indeed a deed which requires the greatest daring and courage.[19]Bhai Parmanand, trans. Sundra Iyer and Lal Chand Dhawan, The Story of my Life (Lahore: The Central Hindu Yuvak Sabha: 1934). p. 149.

The Cellular Jail had no toilets. Prisoners were given three pots. One for food, one for water and one for storing discharges, which would later be emptied by a guard!

Construction of the Cellular Jail

Richard Carnac Temple

The notorious Cellular jail started being constructed in 1896 and it was completed during Col. Sir Richard Carnac Temple’s tenure who was Chief Commissioner of Port Blair until 1903. It seems the Cellular Jail was opened in 1906. It also appears that the Cellular Jail was his idea. To quote,

At a Society of Arts lecture at London’s Imperial Institute, on February 24, 1899, Richard Carnac Temple, now chief commissioner of the Andamans, unveiled a half-million rupee vision to crush once and for all the mutinous spirit. Prisoners would no longer live in barracks scattered across the malarial islands. Instead, a 698-cell panopticon was now rising out of the mangrove swamps on a promontory called Atlanta Point, overlooking the main town of Port Blair. From its Central Tower radiated seven 150-yard wings that rose to three levels, each level fitted with 52 cells, 13.5ft by 7.5ft, each supplied with a 6ft by 3ft wooden slat bed and ventilated by a barred 3ft by 1ft grate. Here was a “huge, practical reformatory” that would carry the work of the Andaman Islands’ authorities into a new age. Every arrival would be forced “to bend his rebellious nature to the yoke”; Carnac Temple promised them a fate “even more dreadful than the hangman’s noose.”[20]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.

The Temple family crest happens to bear two Phoenixes. The Latin phrase below translates as “Temple How Beloved,” and is a reference to the regard the Phoenicians had for the Ancient Egyptian temple of Carnac, where child sacrifices took place.

Note his middle name, which stands for a noted Ancient Egyptian temple-complex, and Ancient Egypt was a society in which the royals practised institutionalized enslavement of their subject population. These folks were anything but Christian. Richard Carnac Temple’s father was also a British statesman in India, who was infamous for deliberately triggering famines. He was also appointed as the British resident for Hyderabad State in 1867. Interestingly, Richard Carnac Temple edited a book on Devil worship in a part of the South Indian coast.[21] Wikipedia contributors, “Richard Carnac Temple,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Carnac_Temple&oldid=1118539719 (accessed November 1, 2022). He would later retire to a Swiss hamlet that happens to be a popular hangout among the Phoenicians.

The Phoenicians had in their arsenal some of the darkest minds humanity had ever produced. And one such mind was that of British social theorist Jeremy Bentham (1747-1832), who first came up with the idea of a Panopticon. His idea of a Panopticon was carefully implemented at the Cellular Jail. Seven prison wings were constructed, three stories each, which intersected at a massive guard tower. The guard tower was designed such that the prisoners could never discern whether or not they were being watched from its narrow windows. But the idea of being watched would grow stronger in them, regardless. Making them to modify their behaviour as if they were being continuously watched. It seems that the Andaman Cellular Jail was not the first jail to implement the idea of a Panopticon. In 1829, the Eastern State Penitentiary was built in Philadelphia USA and remained operational till 1971. Panopticons were no longer built by the Phoenicians after camera surveillance technologies developed. The Panopticon is also considered a metaphor for some Western Societies, such as Britain.

There is also a theory that the Cellular Jail’s operation system was based on the British Borstal prison system, which had already been established in 1870 in Rochester, Britain. This was a “Youth Detention Centre.”[22]Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p.308.<https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022.

A rare photo of the Cellular Jail with all seven wings.
Another rare photo of all the seven wings.
Today, only three wings remain.

In total, the new Cellular Jail had 690-698 cells.[23]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 76.. To minimise dialogue between prisoners, the front portion of each wing faced the back portion of the other wing. There was a small ventilator at the back, but it was covered by a slanting shade, making it difficult to see the prisoners in the back wing.[24]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 77..      

Col. Temple was succeeded by Major H. A Browning in 1906. From 1909 onwards, the Government of British India made the Cellular jail the focus of political prisoners, rather than regular convicts. This seems to coincide with a flareup of revolutionary activity in Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra.[25]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 22. The British Government promised on three occasions to stop sending political prisoners to the Cellular jail, but backtracked later on. In 1939, the Cellular jail was emptied by the British, [26]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015. and two years later the Japanese occupied the islands. The British reoccupied the Andamans after the Japanese surrender on 16th August 1945. India became independent on 15th August 1947 and the islands came into its control.

Ross Island – The Phoenician Good Life

For safety reasons, British-Phoenicians preferred to be separated by sea from the Cellular Jail when living in the Andamans. Therefore Ross Island was developed like an accommodation-resort. It was minutes away from Port Blair by motorboat.[27]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 79. Here the British-Phoenicians lived in an idyllic, Mediterranean style alternate reality. To quote,

The Chief Commissioner’s Residence (called Government House) was built on the Northern Summit of the Ross. It was a large, gabled house with Italian tiled floors on the ground level. This level housed offices and a courtroom. The living rooms were on the top floor of this wooden house. The house was surrounded by gardens of amaltas, yellow laburnum, mango trees, shrubbery and lawns. It had a private tennis court at the back and an aviary on one side and a palm house on the other and a driveway curving up in front of shallow stone steps, guarded by a canon.[28]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 80.

To quote an occupant of this place, Col. M. L. Ferror, the then Chief Commissioner of Port Blair in 1923,

They have high-wheeled double rickshaws with iron tires pulled and pushed by six men, each dressed in red dosuti coats and red puggarees. These men also do garden work and pick up tennis balls. The houses are all wooden and doors are never shut except to keep out rain or mist. In that way, it is like Bombay. There are no horse flies and no malarial mosquitoes on the Ross.[29]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 80.

To further quote,

There was an exclusive club for the senior English officers, another for middle rung officers and yet another one for other ranks. A huge distillation plant brought from England met the drinking water needs of the sahibs. An imposing Anglican church enabled them to wash their sins and get ready for next day’s brutalities on the natives. A bakery for supplying them oven fresh muffins and croissants, a shopping arcade and a cemetery to bury their dead were all there. A swimming pool with a filtration plant was a perfect foil to their leisurely lifestyle. No wonder this little island came to be known as the ‘Paris of the East.’ And, all this to support a population of just five hundred denizens.[30]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 81.

In other words, top-tier Phoenicians avoided mixing with the gunfodder grade Britons by reproducing all the class restrictions of Victorian England.

Catacombs

The Phoenicians are known to have a penchant for building underground tunnel complexes. And with these islands meant to be permanent British bases, it seems such underground tunnel complexes were indeed built using prisoner labour in the early stages of the development of Ross Island. But when the British left, they dynamited the entrances. To quote,

Intended to assist the hugely important British commanders in escaping while in an assault, Ross Island’ surroundings have even been established with complex systems intertwined Ross Island man-cave structures. Since its goal of the Ross Island Andaman caves has indeed been achieved, they are all now deserted and function as a display of the talents, labor, and adversity that Indian workers experienced to create them. The Ross Island caves have been interconnected by a number of trails, linking prominent buildings and offices all around the Ross Island, plus they give an extremely eerie atmosphere to any adventurer who plans to expand within. Its most often suggested that you bring a guide along with you when you first visit them to assure your safety and quick return to avoid any complications further on.

Ross Island as a Hideout for “Special” Prisoners?

British-Phoenicians began inserting localized Phoenician leaders into many of India’s Freedom Movements. Their objective was to kick-start a violent Freedom Movement coinciding with World War I, which has been discussed in a separate article. This resulted in many fake freedom fighters getting caught by lower level police officials and sentenced to death. The sentences would later be changed to life imprisonment in the Andamans, and later, when public attention died down, their sentences would be commuted from life imprisonment to 10-15-20 years.

A remarkable feature of the new jail cells of the Cellular Jail was that no prisoner could see his neighbour. Even the ventilator at the back had a sloping roof on the outside. And unlike before, the prisoners sometimes had no social life, spending weeks in solitary confinement. This was done so that the crypto-Phoenician leaders could be sentenced to languish in the Cellular jail* and build some “Freedom Fighter” cred whereas in reality, they could be living it big in neighbouring Ross Island, or be on a tour Europe in First Class. Of course, they would be trotted into the Cellular jail occasionally, usually on the occasions when all the other imprisoned freedom fighters were engaged in group work, so that they could build some “Freedom Fighter cred. They also got to circulate their writings among the genuine freedom fighters imprisoned there.

* With that being said, of the list of known prisoners in the Cellular Jail after its construction in 1909 (which again, is a small fraction of the actual number of prisoners), I believe that special Spook prisoners are less than 3%. However, they are fairly prominent. One such “freedom fighter” was known to only instigate Hindu-Muslim tensions among the prisoners, and would disappear without explanation for weeks. Another such “freedom fighter” was sentenced twice to the Andamans because he not only “escaped” the first time but went back to India and participated in Freedom Movements, which is unbelievable.

In that case, it is obvious that Ross Island would have been an ideal hangout for them, where they could enjoy all the luxuries of the good life but at the same time, be safe from the prying eyes of the prison population as well as lower level prison officials. When they would be secretly transported back to their cells, or for socializing with the prison population, they would claim to have been held in solitary confinement. There were rumours of tunnels and secret passages in the Cellular jail, which connected “special cells” reserved for such prisoners. They could thus leave the Cellular Jail without being marched in the main passage, in front of the other jail cells.

There are even rumours of a secret tunnel connecting Ross Island to Port Blair, although its entrances may have been dynamited. Such a tunnel would have enabled the “special prisoners” to spend the night in the comfort of Ross Island, while returning at their convenience.

The Andamans is intricately connected to all of British India’s Freedom Movements from 1857 onwards. And many these movements were in turn infiltrated by British Intelligence. Therefore some select “prisoners” were in fact British Intelligence operatives, and they were housed at Ross Island while the world was told that they were at the Cellular Jail. In addition, the British had the full means to fake entries for “special prisoners,” who may not even have stepped foot on the islands. Read More…..

The Secret History of British India’s “Freedom Movements”

The Abandonment of Ross Island

When the Japanese invaded the Andamans, they established a presence on Ross Island, as if they were guarding it, and did not want others to set shop in it. After the Japanese left, the British never came back to Ross Island for reasons unknown.

Even after India became independent, access to Ross Island was restricted for decades, and it still remains largely untouched.

Japanese Occupation

It is interesting to note that other Naval Powers never bothered to contest British control over the Andamans. This can only be explained by the fact that the other Naval Powers were also Phoenician. For example, in World War I, there was a plot to use German ships interned at a port at the northern tip of Sumatra to bombard the Cellular jail. The freed prisoners were to land as a liberation army (under V. D. Savarkar) on the Orissa coast. However, there was no plan for a German occupation of the islands.

Similarly, in World War I, Imperial Japan (another Phoenician Project), briefly occupied the islands from 23rd March 1942 till October 1945. The Japanese would trot out Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose on 29th December 1943 on the islands very briefly and would pretend to establish a Provisional Government for his Indian National Army. In reality, the Japanese were here to do the dirty work that the British could not have done on their own. It is thus no surprise that the British quietly evacuated the Islands to the Japanese without the slightest resistance. In fact they had emptied the Cellular Jail two years earlier in 1939 so that no political prisoners would get freed by the Japanese![31]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 <https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy> Accessed 07/09/2015.  The British also started construction of an airstrip at Lamba Line,[32]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 304. which was meant for the Japanese. We are told the Japanese would complete it. As we shall see, its purpose was to bombard the aborigines, whom the British were worried about.

Colonel Jochi Renusakai was made commander of the Andaman garrison, and Mitsubashi was made Chief of Police. Both of them were seasoned butchers involved in earlier Phoenician ops, such as the Nanking atrocities against Chinese women, which were later used to  discredit the Empire of Japan in the eyes of the world.

The Phoenicians intended to completely destroy the Cellular Jail, now that they were done with it. The problem was that the British destroying it would alert everyone of their coverup. Therefore it was to be accomplished during Japanese occupation. We are told that either a previous earthquake, or the Japanese, or later Indian administrators, or a combination involving all three, destroyed four of the seven wings of the Cellular Jail. The truth may never be known. What is known is that there was a concerted effort, coinciding with the Japanese occupation, to completely destroy the Cellular Jail. Because if the Cellular Jail remained standing, independent India could make a claim to it, and these Islands were meant to be under permanent British control. In addition, it was necessary to cover up the existence of the Cellular Jail, just as the paper records of the 40,000+ prisoners were hidden. It had become a monument to Phoenician barbarity. All that currently remains are three wings (1,6 and 7) and the central watchtower.[33]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 78. Following India’s independence, the G. B. Pant Hospital was strangely established on the remains of two of the destroyed wings.

The British strategy of managing the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was to deliberately keep the native aboriginal populations in an isolated, primitive state, and to deny them any means for cultural development. That way, they would never make any future claims to the islands. But one group of aborigines known as the Nicobarese started showing advanced development. Add to that, a Sikh named Dr. Diwan Singh Dhillon who originally came to the islands as a political prisoner 1927[34]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 301. decided to settle down in the islands and became a fulltime volunteer in spreading literacy, medical aid and development among the aboriginals. This greatly angered the Phoenicians. But they could not use the British to openly stop the doctor.

The Japanese were tasked with killing Dr. Diwan Singh. They tortured him for 82 days before he breathed his last on 14th January 1944.[35]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 305.. The brief Japanese occupation was also a great opportunity for the Phoenicians to destroy the aboriginals, in particular the Nicobarese, who were showing advanced development. The Japanese deliberately tried to starve the aborigines, using their airforce and military to destroy their already primitive infrastructure. On 4th August 1945, hundreds of aborigines were rounded up and taken by ship to the remote Havelock island, and were thrown into the middle of the sea. But two or three managed to swim ashore and narrate the dreadful story.[36]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 306..   

It seems that the more developed Nicobarese aborigines were specifically targeted by the Japanese. Their literate and eminent persons were specifically tortured to death. Only the British could have supplied the Japanese with such specific lists. A total of 91 Nicobarese were formally killed by the Japanese. A list of their names can be found in Agarwal’s book.[37]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 374.. Large scale Japanese atrocites (both documented and undocumented) almost depopulated the island.

The Phoenicians knew that having Netaji’s INA cadres “liberate” the islands from the British was a bad idea, as they would now have a popular claim to the islands even after the British left. But at the same time the Japanese could not deny the INA’s participation in their liberation. And so, most of the INA cadres were detained by the Japanese in the Cellular Jail after being tortured and accused of being British spies. The only reason the Japanese allowed three wings of the Cellular Jail to remain standing was because they were meant to house the INA in advance. These wings were to be demolished following the execution of the INA by the Japanese, but it seems that things got hurried in their withdrawal and these three wings still remain standing.

From what is known, almost 70 members of the INA were either tortured to death or shot in cold blood by the Japanese. The official list is down below. Many more fled the Andamans.

When the Japanese would leave in October 1945, the British literally walked into the island again, which by now had not even a whimper of resistance.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands were never meant to be acquired by India!

It is unclear what the Phoenicians had in mind but the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were never meant to be acquired by India. Maybe they were to remain as British possessions and later quietly passed over to Communist China the way Hong Kong was. Or maybe the Americans were to “liberate” them from the Japanese and then build permanent bases on them. It was only because of some hard bargaining by Nehru in the last two months before independence that they became part of India. Lord Mountbatten, the last Governor-General of British India wanted the British to have “joint control” through some kind of treaty,[38]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 25. and this was the only reason why the matter was brought up for discussion with Indian leaders. Whereas other voices in the British-Indian government wanted to hurriedly severe the islands from British India, so that they would not be transferred to independent India.[39]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 26. Up until the countdown to the final days of India’s independence, the British believed that the status of the islands could be postponed till a future agreement, while a British Commissioner would continue to administer them. In a last ditch effort, the British tried to advance a Pakistani claim on the islands but had no success. They didn’t even manage to secure some permanent British bases on the islands.

The British failed to coordinate a strategy to retain the islands because they left in hurried circumstances. Some Indians like to give credit to their freedom struggle. But the British left on their own accord, following a clockwork-like countdown, a deadline which could not be delayed. And this was only because they could not remain as administrators while the Partition they had set in motion decades ago had started to unfold. Wars were expected following the Partition. And history would see the British as responsible. People would still point fingers at them, and even dismiss the newly created nation states as their machinations. And of course, in the 190 years of British rule in India, they had meticulously manoeuvred local Phoenicians to the helm of political life, industry, society and culture. They would be there to take care of Phoenician long-term plans when the British left.

The Actual Number of Prisoners still remains a mystery!

One of the biggest mysteries of the Andaman Islands is the number of prisoners who ended up there. The British were meticulous to destroy many prisoner records, and to date, only some partial lists have been reconstructed based on the memories and biographies of later prisoners who were alive after 1947, and based on some remaining British-era records. It is possible that the British were downplaying numbers in their official records and letters. And again, it is near impossible to ascertain the number of prisoners prior to the Construction of the Cellular jail in 1906, because as we go back further in time, the harder it gets to find records. And again, it was exactly this period where the maximum number of prisoners were brought in following the Rebellion of 1857. S. N. Agarwal describes this dilemma as such:

According to the Andaman Administration Report of 1860-61, the number of convicts on the island from March 1858 to December 1858 was only 1940. Although no record is available whether all these prisoners were freedom fighters (mutineers in British terms) or they included criminals, it can be safely presumed that a large number of them must be mutineers. Even from the letter dated 7 August 1858 sent by Dr. Walker to the government of India, it can be safely inferred that almost all the convicts sent to Port Blair were mutineers.

The exact number of freedom fighters transported to the Andamans cannot be ascertained for want of relevant records. However it is understood that Dr. Walker was willing to take as many as “10,000 mutineers and rebel convicts during the first year and continue to take a similar number for the following five years.” But the Government of India in their letter dated 7 May 1858 informed him that it was not probable to send more than 10,000 mutineers and rebel convicts to the Andamans. Dr. N. H. Kulkarni, a former Assistant Director of Archives, in his article, Andamans in 1857 published in the journal Mukti Tirtha Andaman 1976 believes the figure to be between 2000-2500 of freedom fighters of the Indian War of independence who were transported to the Andamans. In the Annual Report of 1863-64, the number of convicts in the Andamans is shown as 3294 in March 1864. Out of them, ordinary convicts may be negligible.

Even according to the ‘Report on the Administration of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Penal Settlement of Port Blair and the Nicobars for 1889-90’(available in the Andaman and Nicobar Secretariat Library) 67 mutineers were still alive in Andaman jail as on 31March 1890 out of total 12,197 convicts, including 904 women convicts. Therefore if thirty-three years after the national uprising and thirty-two years after the political prisoners were first brought to the Andamans and after living in most afflicting conditions, sixty-seven of them were still living on the Andamans on 31 March 1890, it can be safely presumed that thousands of mutineers were brought to the Andamans from different parts of the country by utilizing all three ports of Calcutta, Karachi, Madras in the initial years of the settlement of Port Blair. [….]

I believe the actual number of prisoners may be much higher. From a 2001 Guardian article,[40]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015. we learn that by 1872, the Island had processed 49,592 prisoners. Elsewhere in the article, we are told that a total of 80,000 “political prisoners” for the victims of this penal experiment. Note political prisoners, not ordinary convicts. We also learn that Lord Mayo thought of settling two million people on the islands, although it is not clear if he is referring to prisoners. 

If the serial numbers of the prisoners are taken as literal serial numbers, we can infer that the total number of prisoners exceeds 80,000. For example, Ram Rakha/Raksha, a notable prisoner who starved himself to death somewhere between 1909 and 1921 had the serial number 41054. Are we to assume that by 1939 (when the Cellular jail was finally emptied), an additional 41054 prisoners had been taken in?

In 1921, the convict population in the Andamans was 11,532. And in December 1925 it was reduced to 7740.[41]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 241.

Lists of Freedom Fighters deported to the Andamans

Origin of the Lists

I initially found these lists on an Andaman and Nicobar Government website. A backup can be found here if its offline for some reason.

Upon a great deal of investigation, I discovered that the lists were compiled and edited by Rashida Iqbal in a book titled Unsung Heroes of Freedom Struggles in the Andamans, Who’s Who (Published by the Andaman Nicobar Administration Directorate of Education and Culture). The book also contains brief biographies of the prisoners. And it seems that Rashida Iqbal is the exclusive author of the first list[42] S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 42.. Rashida Iqbal is/was in charge of the National Memorial on the Island.

Additional Notes about the Lists

Please note the following about these lists.

  1. Most prisoners were “political prisoners” or Freedom Fighters. But regular criminals were also deported the the Cellular Jail. This list is exclusively that of political prisoners. Regular criminals may have overlapped with political prisoners in many cases, given the nature of the British penal code. Before World War I, there was no formal distinction between political prisoners and criminals in the Andamans. The distinction only emerges way later.
  2. Prior to the establishment of the Cellular Jail in 1906, comparatively more humane prison conditions existed. Prisoners were allowed to work and marry. And a bustling prison economy developed. A good account of this period is the memoir of Maulana Muhammad Jafar Thanesari, who ended up there for his role in the 1857 Rebellion.
  3. Till World War I, most political prisoners died a natural death in the Andamans, or in some cases, were executed in the Andamans. Repatriation back to India (or to an Indian jail) was uncommon. This is why being sentenced to the Andamans was called “transportation for life.” It was usually given in lieu of a death sentence.
  4. Around the time of World War I, political prisoners would get their sentences shortened and would be repatriated back to India. This was unheard of before.
  5. The lists are in the format of Surname, First Name. In many cases, first names are missing. Some names are mispelt.
  6. It appears that all the political prisoners of the Cellular Jail were male. 
  7. There is no comprehensive data on the aborigines who perished in Japanese atrocities. They may number in thousands if one considers indirect causes, such as starvation.
  8. Note that there may be many more prisoners who could not be traced. All these lists contain a total of 966 entries, and a couple seem to overlap. If you are following my previous analysis of the total prisoners processed on the island exceeding 80,000, these entries constitute less than 1.2% of the total prisoners!

REQUEST FOR MORE INFORMATION......
Please note that I intend to expand this list with more information, especially the less known entries. If you have any additional information, links etc, kindly post them in the comments section.
IMPORTANT NOTE
Note that this list contains only 966 entries, and a couple seem to overlap. If you are following my previous analysis of the total prisoners processed on the island exceeding 80,000, these entries constitute less than 1.2% of the total prisoners!

List of Freedom Fighters deported to the Penal Settlement (and later, to the Cellular Jail)

Part I – Heroes of 1857 (10th March 1858 onwards)

1. Abdullah Mohiuddin

2. Adhuria

3. Aga: Commanded 130 run-aways who had managed to escape to neighboring islands, including Dudhnath Tiwari (#292). [43]Quoting M. V. Portman in A History of our Relations with the Andamanese. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41. 

4. Akbar Zama ,Syed

5. Alauddin, Maulavi Syed: To quote,

Maulvi Allauddin

Syed Allauddin Hyder also known as Maulvi Allauddin was a preacher and Imam of Makkah Masjid, Hyderabad, India. On July 17 about 500 people led by Maulvi Allauddin and Turrebaz Khan took out a protest march from Mecca Masjid to the British Residency. The protesters turned violent and attacked the residency. The British forces opened fire. The protesters sustained a counter-attack for a few hours but had to retreat thereafter. Turrebaz Khan was arrested, while Maulvi Alauddin managed to flee. He was captured and transferred to the Cellular Jail. He was sent out of Hyderabad on 28th June 1859. The Maulvi’s right hand had been paralysed owing to a gunshot wound during the attack on the residency. He had also suffered sword wounds on his shoulder and forehead. The Maulvi made repeated requests to be released on basis of poor health and good conduct, but these were rejected. He died sometime in 1889.

Historian Francis Xavier Neelam has some additional information about Allauddin here.

6. Ambala Nanu

7. Aneer Khan

8. Amruta

9. Anajoe

10. Annu Nathu

11. Anwar khan Piare Khan

12. Aaoghad Bawa

13. Arjun

14. Ayuppa Hindulla

15. Babun Jummal khan

16. Bada Miya

17. Bagal, Yadu Patlu

18. Bahadur Goanburah: Correct spelling should be Gaonbarah. Was from Assam.[44]Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41. 

19. Bahadur Singh: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans. [45]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

20. Bala

21. Balakrishana

22. Barku

23. Barua, Dutiram: Was from Assam.[46]Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41. 

24. Bhai khan

25. Bandari Gopal

26. Bhikari

27. Bhima

28. Bhimaji

29. Bhim Rao

30. Bhiwa Lakma

31. Bhorji, Paddu

32. Bhosale, Atmaram Santu

33. Bhosale, Babaji Bhujanga

34. Bhosale, Ganu khandu

35. Bhosale, Raghu Manaji

36. Bhosale, Vithu Hangu

37. Bhosale, Vyankat Rao

38. Bhutia

39. Birbat kunbi

40. Budnya Peersaheb

41. Chaman Singh

42. Chauhan Sujan Singh

43. Chavan, Ganu Bapu

44. Chavan, Hari Biru

45. Chavan, Krishnappa Gopal

46. Chavan Mahadev.

47. Dadabhai Parbhudas

48. Dagdu

49. Dama

50. Damodar Abaji

51. Das Baladanda

52. Dattu Nathu

53. Davu Sarmalkar

54. Desai, Narayan

55. Desai ,Pancheli Govind

56. Desai, Raghoba

57. Devi: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[47]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

58. Devi Din

59. Deviji Sirsat

60. Devi Prasad

61. Dhaku Ghadi

62. Dharma

63. Dharma Subhana

64. Dhobey Gulgar

65. Dhondia Birbal

66. Dhondu, kalu

67. Dogra Mangal Singh

68. Doolum

69. Doulat Singh Pancham singh

70. Dutt, Shoo: A Brahmin. Managed to escape to neighboring islands with Dudhnath Tiwari (#292) but was injured by aborigines. [48]Quoting M. V. Portman in A History of our Relations with the Andamanese. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.   

71. Fakira, Lingappa

72. Fakru

73. Faras khan Imam khan

74. Fazal Haq khairabadi: He was one of the main poets among the Indian Muslim Freedom fighters of 1857. He was a philosopher, an author, a poet, a religious scholar, but is most remembered for issuing a fatwa of armed fighting in favor of Jihad against the British empire in 1857. He was also a friend of noted Urdu poet Mirza Ghalib. He resigned from the office of Sarishtadar of Delhi Residency to join the revolt. After the fall of Delhi, he supposedly returned to Khairabad but was allegedly captured and died in the Andamans. [49]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 39. To quote,

He allegedly stayed for 22 months in captivity at Andaman, Allama wrote a number of eyewitness accounts in the form of verses in Arabic (Qaseeda), apart from a book Alsoorat-ul- Hindia which is a critical analysis of the war and events of 1857. This is also the first ever book on the events of 1857. Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi allegedly died on August 19th, 1861 in exile on the Andaman Islands.

Note that his presence on the islands is disputed.

75. Futta: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[50]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

76. Gaikwad Devji

77. Ganesh Maharaj

78. Gan Sawat

79. Ganu, Sakharam

80. Garbed, Haribhai

81. Gavali, Vithu

82. Ghatge, Hanumant

83. Ghouse Ghulam

84. Gokhale Bhikaji Ganesh

85. Gopala, Sant Sali

86. Govardhan

87. Govind

88. Govinda, Mahar

89. Govind, Vithu

90. Gowda, Govind

91. Gulab, khan

92. Gulia, Mudemiya

93. Hari

94. Hattee Singh: Correct spelling should be Hatte Singh. A brave zamindar of Ghess (Orissa) whose whole family fought against the British till 1865. He fought alongside Veer Surendra Sai, a descendant of the ruling clan of Sambalpur. Sambalpur was one of the last patch of land to be occupied by the British Empire in India, not counting the Princely States. His father, brother and sons were executed.[51]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. Hattee Singh died on Viper Island.

95. Hendlakar, Devji

96. Hidait- Ullah

97. Himanchal Singh: Correct spelling should be Himanohal Singh. Along with his son Kura Singh (See #147), he participated in the Rebellion of 1857 Thana Bhavan, Muzzafarnnagar, UP.[52]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

98. Hona ji

99. Horawan

100. Hussain Guljar

101. Hussain ,Hatela

102. Hussain Ibrahim

103. Hussain Shah, Fakir

104. Jadhav, Raghu

105. Jadav Subhana Bapu

106. Jagadesh Singh

107. Jairam, Rama

108. Jairam, Shivram

109. Jasmer Singh

110. Jawahr Singh: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[53]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

111. Jay Singh

112. Jewahkitippah

113. Jiwaji, Abhimanyu

114. Jorekar, Babi

115. Joshi, Krishnaji

116. Kabre Gunajli

117. Kadam, Apa Babu

118. Kadam, Ram

119. Kadam, Ravji Kalaji

120. Kagdia

121. Kakdia, Mahadu

122. Kallappa Hulgeppa

123. Kallu

124. Kallu Mubarak

125. Kallu Rehman

126. Kalu

127. Kalu Rajia

128. Kanhayya Veludi

129. Karim Rehman

130. Karsowkar Gopal

131. Karim khan

132. Katilbeg

133. Khandu Vithu

134. Khedu Lakshman

135. Khiran

136. Kifaitullah

137. Kisan, Santuram

138. Kochrakar Zillu

139. Kokamkar, Gopal

140. koli ,Manya

141. Konkankar Bombi

142. Kulkarni, Babaji Balaji

143. Kumbhar, Vithu Satwaji

144. Kunbi, Girwar

145. Kunbi, Jawahar

146. Kupason

147. Kura Singh: Scroll up to entry #97 for additional details.

148. Kutwar,Sunkar

149. Lakarsha, Kalusha

150. Lalai

151. Liaqat Ali: Maulana Liaqat Ali was a reputed leader of rebels in 1857. He was originally from Allahabad. During the Rebellion of 1857 Khusrau Bagh became the headquarters of the sepoys under Maulvi Liaquat Ali who took charge as the Governor of liberated Allahabad. In Allahabad however the Mutiny was swiftly put down and Khusro Bagh was retaken by the British in two weeks. After 1857, he tried to escape to Bombay with his wife and attempted to board a ship for Hajj, but was caught (1871). And died in the Andamans. [54]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 39. But there is also a contradictory account. To quote,

The famous Amelia Horne (also known as Amy Horne and Amelia Bennett) was a 17-year-old survivor of the alleged Siege of Cawnpore. She was a witness for the 1872 trial of Liaquat Ali, and was presented in Liaquat Ali’s defense as he saved her life. Liaqat Ali was sentenced to life in prison at Port Blair, in one of the Cellular Jail in Andaman Islands.

But the same source tells us that he died before reaching the Andamans at Rangoon (Burma).

152. Lingappa Sakarappa

153. Loney Singh: He was from Mitauli, Sitapur District UP and participated in the 1857 Rebellion. He died in a hunger strike before being transported to the Andamans. [55]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

154. Madhu Mallick: Was from Assam.[56]Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41. 

155. Mahadik, Hybatrao Appa

156. Mahale Vithu Bahiru

157. Mahibullah: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[57]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

158. Majumder, Timappa

159. Mallik Jogi

160. Mallu Porka

161. Malwankar, Appa

162. Malya Yallapa

163. Mammu khan

164. Mane ,Narsingh

165. Mania

166. Manjayya, Malya

167. Mannu Singh

168. Maoji

169. Maoji, Dhundal

170. Maya Ram: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[58]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

171. Mandi Mochi

172. Mharu

173. Mhaskar, Rowloji Lingoji Naik

174. Mingali Kristun

175. Mirashi Ganesh

176. Mirashi, Narayan

177. Mirza Wilayat Hussain khan

178. Moghe, Gopal Shivram Joshi

179. Mohd Ismail Hussain Muneer

180. Mohd, Yar Khan

181. Mohan

182. Mohan Singh Pancham Singh

183. Mohite, Tatya

184. Morey, Limba Bhawni

185. Mosya, Arjun

186. Mulkundy, Lakshman

187. Musai Singh

188. Naik, Bhima: The Bhil chieftain of Dholi Bowli (Baiwani State) Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore). He fought alongside Tatya Tope. [59]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

189. Naik, Bodark yashwant

190. Naik, Ganga Eka

191. Naik, Naroji Lingoji

192. Naik, Somia Jatra

193. Nalji Waradkir

194. Nana Chiloji

195. Nana Pokra

196. Narain: Was sent to Andaman for having fomented a mutiny at the British cantonment at Danapur, Bihar. Tried escaping Chatham island by wimming to Point Blair but was fired upon. Was captured and hung in the gallows at Andaman.[60]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 38.

197. Narajekar Bhiku

198. Narsa Linga

199. Narsingh

200. Narsingh shivappa

201. Naru Dhula

202. Nassira

203. Niaz Mohd Khan

204. Niranjan Singh: Was convicted in Bengal for deserting the British army. Hung himself at Ross island. [61]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 6.

205. Noora: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[62]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

206. Nuzzar Mohd

207. Pagay, Ranga Rao Ratnakar

208. Pandia

209. Pandu Pade

210. Pandu, Singinkar

211. Panjali Poku

212. Parulkar, Sadasiv Narayan

213. Pasi, Ramdin

214. Patel, Bhan Kanjora

215. Patel, Bhau Harji

216. Patel, Bhilla Atyia

217. Patel, Garbadas: A headman of Anand, Kaira district, Gujarat. He attacked the British camp at Lotia Bangol. [63]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

218. Patel Itu

219. Patel, khushal Govind

220. Patel, Maoji Arjun

221. Patel, Pandu Dhondi

222. Patel, Trimbak Hari

223. Pawar ,Jivba Miru

224. Pawar, Vyanka

225. Phadnis ,Shridhar Sitaram

226. Poipkar, Bapu

227. Paradhan, Maoji Dharma

228. Qaim khan: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[64]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

229. Raja Meera

230. Raja Vyankat

231. Rama

232. Ramdin Ahir

233. Ramji Jagtap

234. Ram Parab

235. Ram Prasad

236. Ram Singh Indrasing

237. Rao, Rama

238. Rao, Sheeshgiri

239. Rao, Venkat: Zamindar of Arapali (Madhya Pradesh). He persuaded the Gonds, Marias and Rohillas to join the Rebellion of 1857. Died in the Andamans.[65]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

240. Ravji

241. Rawanekar, Bhikaji

242. Rawal ,Bisai Bhiku

243. Ray Singh

244. Rayu

245. Rohim

246. Rowyo

247. Rudrappa, Bhima

248. Rulya Limji

249. Sakarappa, Gourappa

250. Shaka Ram

251. Salvi, Gopal

252. Sandu

253. Santu Chandu

254. Sanu Bagal

255. Sathe Bhau

256. Satodar, Govind

257. Sawant, Babaji

258. Sawant, Ganu

259. Sawant, Maun Appa

260. Sawant, Puttaji Baburao

261. Sawant,Trimbak

262. Sawant,Vishram

263. Sawant, Doud

264. Shah ,Jahanda

265. Shah, Manju: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[66]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40. 

266. Shah, Qutub

267. Shah, Sarvar

268. Shambhu Kautnakar

269. Shankar Maharaj

270. Sheik Ali

271. Sheik Formud Ali: Was from Assam.[67]Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41. 

272. Sheik Mannu

273. Shevde, Narayan Vishwanath

274. Shinde, Narayan Piraji

275. Shinde, Rama Raghu

276. Shivappa Sangappa

277. Shridhar Bhikun

278. Siraj-Uddin: Resident of Nimar (part of the former princely state of Indore) and participated in the revolt at Mandeshwar in 1857. Died in the Andamans.[68]Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.  

279. Somia

280. Subasing

281. Suka

282. Suka Maraya

283. Sultan Paras

284. Supria

285. Suznya Suthu

286. Syed Ahmed

287. Tammanna Lakshman

288. Tendulkar, Raghu

289. Thakur Lakshman

290. Thorat, Bapu Naroji

291. Tinajah

292. Tiwari, Dudhnath: A British soldier who was convicted of mutiny and sentenced in Jhelum. Escaped Ross island with 90 other convicts using rafts made from felled trees. Many of these convicts died of starvation and others were attacked by the aborigines. However, Dudhnath survived and developed a close relationship with them. He even married two of their girls. In 1859, he returned to the convict station and betrayed to the British the plan of the aborigines to attack the British. In return for his traitorship, he was given a pardon. The aborigines were obliterated in the battle and gave up fighting against the British.

293. Trembak, Raghu

294. Tukaram Krishnaji

295. Tulia

296. Tulpia

297. Vaingankar Vithu

298. Vanda Soma

299. Viloba Valaji

300. Vista Babaji

301. Vithoba

302. Vithoba, Nujakar

303. Vithu

304. Vithu Bava

305. Vyankappa Sakarappa

306. Wazir

307. Yadav, Chinnaji

308. Yerappa, Gangaram

309. Yesa Nathia

Possible Unlisted Prisoners:

  • Boorhana: Among the run-aways who had managed to escape to neighboring islands, including Dudhnath Tiwari (#292). He is referred to as Prisoner # 2262. He escaped with three others in 1859 but later returned. He claimed that one of his companions had been killed by the aborigines, while two others were living with them on Rutland island. [69]Quoting M. V. Portman in A History of our Relations with the Andamanese. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41. 
  • Given the fact that initially, anyone who belonged to the Mughal royal family, or who had sent a petition to Bahadur Shah Zafar during the Rebellion of 1857 was liable to be deported to the Cellular Jail, many royals would have been liable for deportation. I have only been able to track down one, and that is Sri Gajapati Raja Ramchandra Deva III, Raja of Puri 1808/1857 (1817/1856), the last Raja of Khurda, who rebelled against the British authorities in 1808, and the Kingdom of Orissa was abolished. According to the memoir of Maulana Muhammad Jafar Thanesari, he died shortly after arrival to the Andamans, after exhaustion from forced labour. I have not been able to find him on the list.

Part II – PRE-CELLULAR JAIL DEPORTATIONS (Wahabi Movement, Anglo Manipuri Revolt & others) 1864 onwards)

1. Abdul Gaffar

2. Abdul Gaffur

3. Abdul Karim

4. Abdul Rahim Sadiqpuri

5. Ahmedullah: Was sentenced to death in the Patna trial of 1865 for treason. The sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment in the Andamans in June 1865.[70]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.   

6. Amir Khan: Convicted in July 1869 for raising funds of jihad. [71]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62. 

7. Amiruddin:Was sentenced to life imprisonment in the Andamans in the Malda trial of 1870. His property was also confiscated.[72]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.   

8. Angou Sana

9. Ayapurel

10. Deo, Brij kishore Singh

11. Hasmatdad Khan: Could be Hashmat Khan. Convicted in July 1869 for raising funds of jihad. [73]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62. 

12. Jodh Singh

13. Kula Chandra Singh

14. Luwang Ningthou

15. Masud khan

16. Mohd. Shafi Hussain

17. Mohd. Shafi Lahori

18. Mondal, Ibrahim: Correct spelling should be Ibrahim Mandal. A respected Wahabi leader convicted in Raj Mahal in 1870. He was later released by Lord Lyton in 1878.[74]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.   

19. Sher Ali : A Pathan from the NorthWest Frontier Province who ended up in the Andamans for unclear reasons. He was in the Punjab mounted police and was convicted for a murder in Peshawar. According to some sources, he was influenced by the Wahabi Movement.[75]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 63. He decided to kill a high ranking British officer whenever he got the chance, despite the fact that his good conduct in the Andamans had earned him a “ticket of leave.”[76]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 63. On 8th February, 1872, Lord Mayo, the Viceroy of India was paying a visit to the Andaman, and ended up being stabbed to death by Sher Ali. Sher Ali was executed, and the British government began construction of the Cellular Jail to avoid such complications in the future (Source). His Serial # was 15557. Here  is S. N. Agarwal’s account of the affair:

Sher Ali Afridi

Maulana Md. Jafar Thanesari,who was in the Andamans at that time as one of the political prisoners and who had later published an autobiography in Urdu, wrote that for years, Sher Ali had long been waiting to kill a white man of high rank and he got the opportunity to execute his plans. Perhaps he intended to kill both the Viceroy and the Superintendent on that fateful day. Throughout the day, Sher Ali had tried his best to cross the waters and get across to the Viceroy to lay his hands on him, but he could not get permission to go to Ross Island where Lord Mayo was staying. In disgust, Sher Ali had almost given up hope for that day. But when Lord Mayo decided to go to Mount Harriet, it was as if, fate had brought him to Sher Ali’s trap. Without being detected, Sher Ali went up the hill when Lord Mayo was on his way up to Mount Harriet but the former could not get the opportunity. He thought out a plan and after climbing down, he his himself near the jetty at a place from where he could attack the Viceroy.

As darkness set in, Lord Mayo, accompanied by the torch bearers advanced towards the shore as the guests on board were eagerly awaiting the Viceroy’s return. Lady Mayo was feeling terribly anxious for the safety of her husband. Peering intently through the darkness, she saw the party nearing the shore. She asked the bandmen to strike up “Rule Britannia.” Lord Mayo stepped quickly forward to descend the jetty stairs and board the launch.

This was the moment, Sher Ali was waiting for. With the speed of lightning he pounced upon Lord Mayo and stabbed him in the back grievously before he was caught. Writes F. A. M. Dass: “In a second, twelve men were on the assailant; an English officer was pulling them off, and with his sword hilt, kept back the guards, who could have killed the man on the spot. The torches had gone out, but the Viceroy, who had staggered over the pier side, could be dimly seen rising up in the knee deep water, and clearing the hair off his brow with his hand as if to recover himself. His private secretary was instantly at his side helping him up the bank. ‘Byrne,’ he said quickly, ‘They’ve hit me.’ Then in a louder voice which was heard on the pier, ‘It’s all right, I don’t think I am much hurt.’ In another minute he was sitting under the smoky glare of the re-lit torches, in a rude native cart at the side of the jetty, his legs hanging loosely down. As they lifted him bodily onto the cart they saw a great dark patch on the back of his coat. The blood came streaming out, and the men tried to stop it with their handkerchiefs. For a moment or two he sat up in the cart, then fell heavily backwards. ‘Lift up my head’ he said finally. Those were his last words.

After a while, Sher Ali was brought on board where the dead Lord Mayo was lying. The Foreign Secretary, Captain Atichson, asked him as to why he had committed the murder. Without flinching, he replied, “God so wished it” [trans.]. Then he asked who his accomplice was, and he answered, “Among men I have no accomplice; God is my accomplice” [trans.]. Next morning he was called to plead, he said “Yes I did it” [trans.].

Sher Ali was convicted by the Chief Commissioner, Port Blair, sitting as Sessions Judge, and he was sentenced to be hanged by the neck till death. The High Court of Bengal confirmed the sentence. Sher Ali was executed at the Viper Island. [77]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 63-65.    

The Viceroy of India Lord Mayo was killed on the Andamans by Sher Ali.

To quote another account,

[…….] Eight years later, Lord Mayo, the Viceroy of India, arrived at the Andaman Islands on an inspection tour. As the sun set over Mount Harriet on February 8, 1872, and the Viceroy descended from the highest point on the island chain, he announced: “This is the loveliest place I think I ever saw. Plenty of room here to settle two million men.” But his vision was instantly cut down. Major General Donald Stewart, the islands’ superintendent, described the scene at a subsequent inquiry. He heard the cry of “kill, kill” and then a convict “fastened like a tiger on the Viceroy’s back”. Major Byrne, Lord Mayo’s private secretary, reported to the same panel that his superior cried out, “They’ve hit me.” The Government of India concluded that the killer, Sher Ali, had no known motive. They hanged him on March 11. For Irishmen who remembered Lord Mayo’s tenure as their chief secretary, Prisoner 15557 became a martyr, a member of “the warrior dead”.[78]Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 <https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy> Accessed 07/09/2015. 

20. Tabarak Ali

21. Thanesari, Mohd Jafar: Muhammad Jafar (1838–1905) was arrested in 1863 for conspiring to smuggle funds to anti-British fighters in Afghanistan. Beginning in 1866, Thanesari spent some eighteen years in penal colony. In his memoir Tarikh-i-Ajib, he describes the life and customs of the islanders, the rules and regulations for the management of the convicts in the period 1858–79, and the people in authority at the penal colony. He also highlights major events, such as the 1872 assassination at Port Blair of Governor-General Lord Mayo. The book includes a table of Hindi and Urdu words and phrases and Arabic equivalents. Other tables detail the many languages spoken in the colony. The work is illustrated with drawings of the inhabitants and of local flora and fauna. It was first published in 1890. A second, revised and expanded, edition of 1892 can be found here. An english journal article based on his memoir can be found here. Note that his memoir documents the period before the construction of the Cellular Jail, which was comparatively more humane.

According to one source, he was allowed to return back.[79]Quoting L. P. Mathur. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.   

22. Yahya Ali: He was a “Wahabi” cleric who led an uprising against the British. It seems he was tried at the Ambala trial of 1864 and the Patna trial of 1865. His death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in the Anfamans.[80] S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.    

Possible Unlisted Prisoners:

  • 14 companions of Vasudeo Balwant Phadke were sentenced to the Andamans10-25 years each.[81] S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 70. Their identities remain unknown. Phadke was sent to Aden, where he died.

The Royal Family of Manipur

In 1891, British India annexed Manipur after a full-scale military invasion. The royalty of Manipur was exiled in the Andamans at Mt. Harriet. They were kept under house arrest, but not as prisoners. To quote,

From the sketchy records available, there were several from Manipur who were sentenced to death in 1891, including Prince Koireng, popularly known as Bir Tikendrajit, for waging war against the Empress of Britain. Another 23 were deported for life to Kala Pani jail and kept under house arrest at Mt Harriet.

[……] […..] their past ruler Maharaja Kulachandra, his brother from a different queen mother Prince Angousana Senapati and 21 others who were imprisoned there after the 1891 war with the then colonial power, Britain.

[…..] [……] the wife of one of the two exiled royalties from Manipur, Angousana, also gave birth to twin daughters while a prisoner. The twins became prisoners at birth, something not tenable under any civilised law.From details available from descendants of the exiled royals, the two did not die in the Andamans. The British authorities, after some years, showed leniency and transported them to the mainland at the Hazaribagh jail. It was at this jail that the twins were born. It is said the two girls were fluent in Bihari because their nurse spoke it. One of them unfortunately died during a cholera epidemic in jail. As years advanced and Kulachandra’s health deteriorated, the king requested the British for transportation to the holy land of Radha Kunda at Mathura where he wanted to spend his last days. This wish was granted and the two brothers along with their household moved to Radha Kunda. This is where the two breathed their last, Kulachandra much earlier.

After Maharaja Churachand was crowned as king of Manipur in 1907, he visited his uncle Anguosana at Radha Kunda (Kulachandra was no more by then). There, he pleaded for his surviving much younger cousin sister, Angousana’s younger daughter Sanatombi, to be allowed to be taken back to Manipur. The father as well as the British authorities consented and the girl thus returned to the homeland she had never seen before.

Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21

Note: This list seems to overlap with a later one.

1. Alla-ud-din

2. Ali Ahmed Siddiqui: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Second Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

3. Amar Singh: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Second Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

4. Amar Singh Nandbol

5. Banerjee, Upendra Nath: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment. Later reduced to 10 years.

6. Basu, Ashwani Kumar: Name also given as Ashwani Kumar Bose. Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for seven years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

7. Basu, Satya Ranjan: Sentenced to ten years in the Shibpur Dacoity case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

8. Bhan Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ludhiana District. Length of sentence unclear. Gets a mention in a 2001 Guardian article. Was allegedly beaten to death by guards.

9. Bhattacharjee, Abinash Chandra: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment. Later reduced to 7 years.

10. Bhattacharjee, Harendra Kumar

11. Bhowmick, Madan Mohan: Also spelt as Madan Mohan Bhaumik. Sentenced to 10 years in the Barisal Conspiracy Case. This was related to 14 dacoities conducted by the Anushilan Samity.

12. Bishen Singh, S/o Jawala Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar District. Length of sentence unclear.

13. Bishen Singh, S/o Kesar Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar District. Length of sentence unclear.

14. Bishen Singh Dhotian, S/o Jeevan Singh: A Ghadr operative among the soldiery of the 23rd Cavalry Platoon stationed at Mian Mir (Lahore). Was sent to the Andamans after the network was accidentally exposed. Length of stay is unclear.

15. Bishen Singh Dhotian, S/o Ram Singh: A Ghadr operative among the soldiery of the 23rd Cavalry Platoon stationed at Mian Mir (Lahore). Was sent to the Andamans after the network was accidentally exposed. Length of stay is unclear.

16. Biswas, Surendera Nath: Sentenced to ten years in the Shibpur Dacoity case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

17. Channan Singh Dhand Kasel: A Ghadr operative from Amritsar District among the soldiery of the 23rd Cavalry Platoon stationed at Mian Mir (Lahore). Was sent to the Andamans after the network was accidentally exposed. Length of stay is unclear.

18. Chattar Singh: All that is known about him is that he attempted to murder a certain “Professor Duncliff” at Amritsar, presumably under the influence of the Ghadr party.[82]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 198. The length of time served is unknown.

19. Chattar Singh: Gets a mention in a 2001 Guardian article. Died on the island after being tortured.

20. Chet Ram: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

21. Chuhar Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ludhiana District. Length of sentence unclear.

22. Chakarborty, Abani Bhushan: Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for seven years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

23. Chakarborty, Trailokya Nath (alias Kalicharan): Sentenced to 15 years in the Barisal Conspiracy Case of 1913. This was related to 14 dacoities conducted by the Anushilan Samity. He was one of the earliest members of the Anushilan Samity. He was also absconding in the Dacca Conspiracy case. Was also suspected to be involved in 14 murders.[83]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 202. Trailokyanath seems to have come back to Calcutta after serving 10 years. He was arrested once more in 1927 and was sent to a prison at Mandalay in Burma. He was released in 1928 but again joined the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. In 1956, a mysterious recluse showed up in Faizabad. By the time he died in 1985, he had spun a massive secret network of former Indian National Army diehards. All these followers were convinced that the recluse was none other than Subhas Chandra Bose. One of the people the recluse corresponded with was Trailokya Nath Chakarborty.[84]Anuj Dhar, What Happened to Netaji? (New Delhi: Vitastaa Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2016) 64. Trailokya Nath Chakarborty died at Calcutta in 1970.

24. Chatterjee, Sanukul: Sentenced to ten years in the Shibpur Dacoity case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

25. Chatterjee ,Satish Chandra: Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for three years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

26. Chandra ,Nagendran Chandra: Correct name may be Nagendra Nath Chandra. Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for seven years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

27. Chaudhury, Khagendra Nath: Sentenced to 10 years in the Barisal Conspiracy Case. This was related to 14 dacoities conducted by the Anushilan Samity.

28. Chaudhury, Naren Mohan Ghosh: Sentenced to ten years in the Shibpur Dacoity case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

29. Das, Hem Chandra: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment. Later reduced to 10 years.

30. Das, Pulin Behari: A Dhakka college teacher who became a devoted member of the Anushilan Samity. Was sentenced to seven years.

31. Datta, Brojendra Nath: Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for three years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

32. Deena

33. Dutta, Sachindra Nath

34. Dey, Bidhu Bhushan: Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for seven years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

35. Dey, Suhir Chandra

36. Dutta, Ullaskar: Son of a high ranking government official, of Howrah, Dwija Dass Dutt Vaidya. Sentenced to death in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. The sentence was later changed to life imprisonment in the Andaman Cellular Jail. He was allegedly moved to a mental asylum in the Andamans, where he allegedly spent 12-14 years.[85] Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 158. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022. He is then freed in 1920 and returns to Calcutta, where he married and wrote his memoirs. In another account, he was freed in 1913.[86]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 109. He died in 1965.

37. Gewan singh Marhana

38. Ghosh, Barindra Kumar: The brother of Aurobindo Ghosh. Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Was originally sentenced to death. Despite being a dual British and Indian national, he did not request to be tried as a British national, which would have resulted in a more lenient sentence, and in a British prison, not a British-Indian prison.  Strangely enough, he allegedly escapes the Cellular Jail in 1915 and joins Bagha Jatin in Balasore. This is downright unbelievable. He is allegedly caught and sent back to the Cellular Jail, but is released in 1920. (assuming he was in the Cellular Jail).

39. Ghosh, Bhupendra Nath: Sentenced to ten years in the Shibpur Dacoity case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

40. Ghosh, Kalidas: Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for seven years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

41. Girdhari Lal

42. Govind Ram

43. Gurudas Singh

44. Gurdit Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

45. Gurmukh Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ludhiana district. Length of sentence unclear.

46. Gurumukh Singh

47. Harandev Singh

48. Hardit Singh: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

49. Harnam Singh Tunda: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Hoshiarpur district. Length of sentence unclear.

50. Hazara ,Amrita Lal: Was sentenced in 1915 for 15 years in the Raja Bazar Bomb case. Five others were acquitted.

51. Hazara Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

52. Hirda Ram: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. A Rajput from Mandi village. Length of sentence unclear.

53. Hussain Mohd Mujtaba: Also known as Muztaba Hussain, alias Mul Chand. Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Second Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

54. Inder Singh, S/o Ala Singh: Could be Indar Singh Granthi. A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ludhiana district. Length of sentence unclear.

55. Inder Singh, S/o Mula Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

56. Jagat Ram: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Hoshiarpur district. Length of sentence unclear.

57. Jalaldeen

58. Jawala Singh: An important Sikh Ghadarite. He was a potato magnate (originally from Amritsar) settled in California. He became the first vice president of the Hindustan Ghadr Party and founded scholarships at the University of Calfornia at Berkeley for Indian “students.” Echoes of Freedom, a 2001 publication of the UC Berkeley library, published the notification of the scholarships in their 1st January 1912 issue. The scholarships covered the cost of two-way transportation from India and met all expenses, including room and board at 1731 Allston Way, Berkeley. The scholarships were a vehicle for recruiting Indians for the Ghadr Party. Baba Jawala Singh built the first Sikh Temple in USA at Stockton, which was later managed by the Pacific Coast Khalsa Diwan Society. He also leased a 500-acre ranch in Holtsville, near Stockton (an hour away from Berkeley). The Holtsville farm was a secret guerilla-warfare training facility for Ghadarites. Was a potato farmer running this operation or was he fronting for other interests, it may never be known. Jawala Singh was one of the leaders of the first large group that sailed for India on 29th August 1914. On the way, in Singapore, Jawala Singh tried unsuccessfully to win over the loyalty of Indian regiments. On arrival at Calcutta, he got arrested. Strangely, he was tried and “jailed” in Punjab rather than Calcutta. After the Lahore Conspiracy trial in April 1915, we are told he was sent to the Andamans.[87]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 188. but it seems he got a quick release. We are told he was fully “released” from Indian jails in 1933, after which he morphs into a Communist leader. He died in 1938.

59. Jawand Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

60. Jayram Singh

61. Jeevan Singh/Jiwan Singh: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

62. Joshi, Daji Narayan: Also known as Wamanrao Joshi. A Chitpavani Brahmin who was convicted in the Nasik Conspiracy Case and sentenced to life imprisonment (Later reduced to 10 years). In the Cellular Jail, he became a right hand man of V.D. Savarkar, another Chitpavani Brahmin. Savarkar claimed that his brother (Ganesh Savarkar) and this prisoner were transferred to the cooking department.[88]Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 179. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022.

63. Kala Singh, S/o Ghasita Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

64. Kala Singh, S/o Gulab Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. A carpenter from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

65. Kanjilal, Hrishikesh: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment, later reduced to 10 years. Associated with efforts to give recognition to the prisoners of the Cellular Jail as political prisoners.[89]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 121.

66. Bhai Kapur Singh Mohi: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

67. Kar, Gobinda Chandra: May be Govindcharan Kar. Nothing is known about him other than he participated in revolutionary activities in World War I and was sentenced to seven years in the Andamans.[90]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 199. After his supposed release, he resurfaces in the Kakori Conspiracy, and is again sentenced to the Andamans!

68. Karam Chand

69. Kartar Singh Jabbar: Resident of Chuharkhana who was involved in leading an attack on British railway infrastructure in 1919.[91]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205. Released in 1920.

70. Kehar Singh, S/o Nihal Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Reportedly died in the Andamans.

71. Kehar Singh, S/o Bhan Singh

72. Kehar Singh, S/o Bhagat Singh: A Ghadr operative from Amritsar District among the soldiery of the 23rd Cavalry Platoon stationed at Mian Mir (Lahore). Was sent to the Andamans after the network was accidentally exposed. Length of stay is unclear.

73. Kesar Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

74. Kirpa Ram: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear.

75. Kirpal Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. A student from the Khalsa school of Ludhiana district. Length of sentence unclear.

76. Khushal Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. From Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

77. Ladha Ram: An editor of the Swarajya magazine. Originally from Varaichanwala, Gujarat. He was sentenced to 30 years for three articles. Later reduced to 10 years. He died on 5th January 1966 in New Delhi, as a destitute.[92]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 105.

78. Lahiri Ashutosh: Sentenced to 17 years in the Pragpur Dacoity Case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

79. Lakhan Singh

80. Lal Singh, S/o Mohan Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. From Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

81. Lal Singh, S/o Uday Singh

82. Madan Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. From Lahore district. Length of sentence unclear.

83. Mangal Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

84. Manohar Singh

85. Mansha Singh

86. Mehardeen

87. Mehar Singh

88. Mohammadi

89. Mohd Akram khan

90. Mitra Sachindra Lal: Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for seven years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

91. Mukherjee, Nani Gopal: He was just 16 years old when he threw a bomb on the carriage of G. C. Denham, [93]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 102. a top officer of CID Calcutta (2nd March 1911). The bomb did not explode and he was caught on the spot. He was convicted on 27th March 1911 and sentenced to 15 years on the island. Was involved in organizing hunger strikes in the Cellular jail, for the rights of political prisoners.[94]Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 166. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022. Associated with efforts to give recognition to the prisoners of the Cellular Jail as political prisoners.[95]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 121.

92. Nand Singh, S/o Ram Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ludhiana district. Length of sentence unclear.

93. Nand Singh, S/o Punjab Singh: A Ghadr operative from Lyalpur/Faisalabad among the soldiery of the 23rd Cavalry Platoon stationed at Mian Mir (Lahore). Was sent to the Andamans after the network was accidentally exposed. Reportedly died in the Andamans.[96]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.

94. Nandgopal: Could be Nand Gopal Chopra, son of nationalist Bulaki Ram (editor of weekly Inquilab, Lahore). He became an editor of Swarajya and was sentenced to ten years on the island.[97]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 103.

95. Nidhan Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ferozepur district. Length of sentence unclear.

96. Nadir Ali Shah

97. Natha Singh Dhotian: A Ghadr operative from Amritsar District among the soldiery of the 23rd Cavalry Platoon stationed at Mian Mir (Lahore). Was sent to the Andamans after the network was accidentally exposed. Reportedly died in the Andamans.[98]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.

98. Pal, Kinuram: Could be Prem Nath Kinu Pal. Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for five years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

99. Pal, Nakunja Behari

100. Parmanand ,S/o Ghyia Prasad: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from  Hamirpur district U.P. Length of sentence unclear. Became famous in the Cellular jail for beating up the notorious jailer Barrie.

101. Parmanand Bhai, S/o Bhai Tara Chand: The “Punjabi” Bhai Parmanand was supposed to be the local leader of the Ghadr Party at Lahore. He returned to India from abroad as part of the Ghadar Conspiracy, claiming he was accompanied by 5,000 Ghadarites.  Interestingly, he descended from the family of the famous Sikh martyr, Bhai Mati Das. This could explain his role as a Ghadr Party leader. In fact, there is reason to believe that he was selected to be the leader of the Ghadr Party in the Punjab. To quote,

Bhai Parmanand had a close association with the Ghadr leaders and his shop at Machhi Hatta in Lahore was the meeting point for the revolutionaries. He also served as alink between the Punjab Ghadr work and San Francisco headquarters. [99]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 181.

Later as an Arya Samaj leader, he was one of the earliest advocates of the Partition. Got pardoned in 1920.

102. Pal, Jyotish Chandra: Was part of Bagha Jatin’s last stand in 1915 (the only person to not get the death sentence). He was allegedly doing a rendezvous with a German submarine at Balasore.[100]Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 280 <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022. We are told that he went insane at the Andamans and was discharged. He died on 4th December 1924 at Berhampore.

103. Piara Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Hoshiarpur district. Length of sentence unclear.

104. Prithvi Singh Azad: Returning to India (from USA) with along 150 freedom fighters, Prithvi Singh Azad was captured by the British on 7th December 1914. He was sentenced to death at the Lahore Conspiracy case trial. But then the death sentence gets commuted to life imprisonment in the Andamans. He was definitely released soon after (1921?). After 1947, he became a member of the first Constituent Assembly of India. The Government of India honored him with the civilian honor of Padma Bhushan in 1977. He died in 1989.

105. Raja Ram: From Amritsar. Prosecuted in a Martial Law trial.[101]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.

106. Ram Charan Lal: From Etah district. Was sentenced to 30 years for reading articles from Swarajya at public gatherings. [102]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 105. Later reduced to 10 years.

107. Ram Hari: Ram Hari of Qadian, Punjab was an editor of the Urdu weekly Swarajya, which later got banned in India. He was sentenced to 21 years initially. Later reduced to 7 years.

108. Ram Rakha: Or Ram Raksha. Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Second Mandalay Conspiracy case. The length of the sentence is unclear. Gets a mention in a 2001 Guardian article. He starved to death in a protest, when he wasn’t allowed to wear his religious thread.

109. Ram Saran Das: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Originally from Kapurthala. Length of sentence unclear.

110. Randhir Singh: Was sentenced to the Andamans for protesting against the British pulling down the wall a gurudwara in Delhi. [103]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 199. Length of sentence unclear.

111. Rattan Chand: Could be Mahasha Rattan Chand. Convicted in a martial law trial following the Jalianwala Bagh massacre.[104]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.

112. Roda Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ferozepur district. Reportedly died in the Andamans.[105]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.

113. Roshan Lall

114. Roy , Gopendra lal: Could also be Gopen Roy. Sentenced to 17 years in the Pragpur Dacoity Case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

115. Roy, Indubhushan: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment. Reportedly committed suicide on 28th April 1912 in the Cellular Jail.

116. Roy Nikhil Ranjan Guha

117. Roy, Nirapada: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment.

118. Roy, Phanindra Bhushan: Sentenced to 8 years in the Pragpur Dacoity Case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

119. Rulia Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Ludhiana district. Reportedly died in the Andamans.[106]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.

120. Rur Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Chuhar Chak, Moga district. Length of sentence unclear.

121. Sadiq

122. Sajjan Singh

123. Sandhi

124. Sanyal, Kshitish Chandra: Sentenced to 17 years in the Pragpur Dacoity Case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

125. Sanyal ,Sachindra Nath: Sachindra Nath Sanyal was the link between the Punjab Ghadr leaders and the Anushilan Samity of Bengal (Rash Behari Bose).[107]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 198. In February 1915, he was in charge of a Rebellion in Benares in which both sides intended to cooperate, but due to a miscommunication, he arrived two days late and got arrested. Sachindra Nath Sanyal was sentenced to the Andamans in the Benares Conspiracy Case, where he allegedly wrote his book titled Bandi Jeevan (A Life of Captivity, 1922). Strangely, he was released from the Cellular Jail and went on to found the Hindustan Republican Association in October 1924.He was the author of the HRA manifesto, titled The Revolutionary, that was distributed in large cities of North India on 1 January 1925.  Sanyal was once again sentenced to life imprisonment in the Cellular Jail at the Andamans for his involvement in the Kakori conspiracy but was strangely “released” in 1937. We are told he died on 7th February 1942 at Gorakhpur Jail. Is it even possible for a person to be deported to the Andamans twice, and released twice?

126. Sarkar Bibhuti Bhushan: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment. Later reduced to 10 years.

127. Sarkar Bidhu Bhushan

128. Sarkar Nagendra Nath: Originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for five years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.

129. Sarkar, Sudhir Kumar: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment. Later reduced to 7 years.

130. Savarkar, Ganesh Damodar: Brother of V.D. Savarkar. See Nasik Conspiracy Case. Ganesh had been sentenced to life imprisonment in the Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1909. He was back in India by 2nd May 1921 (12 years).

131. Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar: The British government had evidence that Savarkar had smuggled 20 Browning handguns into India, one of which was used in the assassination of A.M.T. Jackson.[108]Vinayak Chaturvedi, Hindutva and Violence: V. D. Savarkar and the Politics of History (New York: State University of New York Press 2022) p. 114. On 13th March 1910, Savarkar was deported to India. But en route, he “escaped” from the ship at Marseilles, but was caught by an alert policeman, and was put back on the ship. In Bombay, Savarkar was convicted and sentenced to 50-years imprisonment, and was transported on 4th July 1911 to the Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. By 2nd May 1921, Savarkar was back in India (10 years). Savarkar tried to establish “Hindu Raj” and Shuddhi movements aimed at Muslim convicts in the Andamans. To quote Bhai Parmanand, “[The Savarkar brothers] always took delight in creating disaffection in the jail.”[109]Bhai Parmanand, trans. Sundra Iyer and Lal Chand Dhawan, The Story of my Life (Lahore: The Central Hindu Yuvak Sabha: 1934). p. 126. Needless to say, most prisoners were in desperate straits, and every day was an ordeal. The Savarkar brothers could not have mustered the resources for such experiments unless they had the support of prison authorities.

132. Sen, Biren Chandra: Could be Birendra Sen. Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment. Later reduced to 7 years.

133. Sengupta, Suresh Chandra: Sentenced to life in the Rajindrapur Train Dacoity Case.[110]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 109. Later reduced to 10 years.

134. Sher Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

135. Shiv Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Hoshiarpur district. Length of sentence unclear.

136. Singhara Singh

137. Sohan Singh Bhakna: A Ghadr Party member who coordinated many activities in the United States. We are told he was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the Ghadr Party imploded. Originally sentenced to death, his sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment in the Andamans. He reached the Andamans on 10th December 1915. By 1921, he was back in Indian jails, and got a full release by July 1930, which is mysterious given that many other Ghadr Party members got executed. He then became a Communist leader.

138. Sawan Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

139. Sucha Singh

140. Sunder Singh

141. Suren Singh: Reportedly died in the Andamans.[111]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.

142. Surjan Singh

143. Teja Singh Chuharkhana: Resident of Chuharkhana who was involved in leading an attack on British railway infrastructure in 1919.[112]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205. Released in 1920.

144. Thakur Singh

145. Udham Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear. Later figures in the 1940 alleged assassination of Michael O’Dwyer, the former lieutenant governor of the Punjab in India.

146. Verma Hotilal: Sentenced to 10 years in the Andamans. Hotilal Verma of Haryana was the editor of the Urdu weekly Swarajya, which later got banned in India. Verma managed to write an account of prison conditions, which was smuggled out and published in a Calcutta newspaper called The Bengali, run by Surendranath Banerjee. This created consternation throughout British India.

147. Wasakha Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

148. Wasawa Singh: A Ghadr Party member who was sentenced in the 1915 Lahore Conspiracy Case trial after the failed Rebellion in the Punjab. Came from overseas but originally from Amritsar district. Length of sentence unclear.

149. Wilayati

Possible Unlisted Prisoners:

  • Sailendra Bose. Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Paresh Mullick: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Indra Nundy. Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Sisir Kumar Ghose: There is a Kumar Ghoshsu as Prisoner # 212 under Part V. But it is unlikely to be Sisir, as he died in 1911 in Calcutta. Sisir Kumar Ghosh (1840–1911) was a noted Indian journalist, founder of the Amrita Bazar Patrika. Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Ashok Chundra Nundy: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to seven years. Died during the pendency of his appeal.
  • Bal Krishan Hari Kane: Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Originally sentenced to seven years.
  • R. Somen, G.B. Vaidya and D.P. Joshi were Chitpavani brahmins sentenced in the Nasik Conspiracy Case.
  • A certain Sudhir Kumar De was sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for seven years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity.
  • Budha Singh: Ghadr Party operative/supporter who was tried in Burma in the Mandalay Conspiracy case.[113]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 196. The length of the sentence is unclear. He died in the Andamans.
  • Sachindranath Bakshi, Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee and Mukundi Lal from the Kakori Conspiracy case.
  • Jatindra Nath Nandi, Kalicharan Das and Harendra Nath Kaviyatirtha sentenced to ten years in the Shibpur Dacoity case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.
  • Chowdhry Bugga Mal was convicted in a martial law trial following the Jalianwala Bagh massacre.[114]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.
  • Sudhir Chandra De was originally sentenced in the Khulna Conspiracy Case on 30th August 1910 for five years, related to some dacoities conducted by people linked to the Anushilan Samity. (#211 and #329 have similar names, but still no match).

Part IV – HEROES OF CELLULAR JAIL 1922-31(Moplah Revolt, Manyam Heroes and others)

NOTE.
This is only a fraction of the deportees. Up to 20,000 Moplahs were deported with their families. Some were allowed to settle down in the Andamans and practice agriculture on newly cleared land.

Note: This may be only a fraction of the deportees. Up to 20,000 Moplahs were deported with their families. Some were allowed to settle down in the Andamans and practice agriculture on newly cleared land.

1. Ahmed Kutty, Mattummal

2. Ahmed Kutty, Variyath Valappil

3. Alavi, Haji Nelliparamban

4. Alavi, Machinchari

5. Alavi, Poovakundi

6. Athan Chungatto

7. Birayiah Dora, Taggi

8. Dublis, Vishnu Sharan: Convicted in the Kakori Conspiracy case on 6th April 1927.[115]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 242.

9. Kayarni, Pokat

10. Kotiaha, KarAbu

11. Koyakutty,Kazhisseri

12. Kunjeni, Kayakhatiparambil

13. Kunjalavi, kolaparamban

14. Kunjara, Kathukalan

15. Kunjayammun ,Mukri

16. Kunjeedu, Neehiyil

17. Kunji Kadar Molla, Puthampeedi Kayet

18. Kutty Hasan, Chakkupurakkal

19. Marakkar, Pooyikuman

20. Marakkar, Mathummal

21. Moideen kutty,Poolakuyyil kunhi

22. Pandu Padal, Bonangi

23. Pockar, Anipa

24. Pothaiah Korabu

25. Raja ,Auggi

26. Rayin, Machingol

27. Saidalippa, Ambattuparamban

28. Saniage Saiah, Golivilli

29. Sanyashi, Kuncheti

30. Shukla, Lakshmi Kanta: Convicted for trying to kill a British Commissioner of Jhansi. His wife accompanied him. [116]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 6.

Possible Unlisted Prisoners:

  • 14 Sikhs[117]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 248. sentenced for participation in the Babbar Akali Movement, against Mahants usurping gurudwaras with tacit British support. Some took their families to the Andamans, but some also perished on the islands.

Part V – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL (1932-38)

Note: This list seems to overlap with a previous one.

1. Acharjee, Gopal Chandra

2. Acharjee, Suresh Chandra

3. Adhikari, Mohit Chandra

4. Adhir Chandra Singh

5. Agarwal, Shyam krishna

6. Ajay Chandra Singh

7. Anant Lal Singh

8. Bachchu LAl

9. Bagchi, Amlendu

10. Bairuni, Provakar

11. Bakshi, Hemchandra

12. Banerjee, Bibhuti Bhsuhan

13. Banerjee,BhupeshChandra

14. Banerjee,Haripada

15. Banerjee,Kali Mohan

16. Banerjee,Madhusudhan

17. Banerjee, Maoranjan

18. Banerjee, Mrityunaya

19. Banerjee, Rabindranth

20. Banerjee, Shirod

21. Banerjee, Susheel kumar

22. Banik, Dharni Mohan

23. Banik, Dinesh Chandra

24. Banik, Surendra Chandra

25. Barua, Mahesh Chandra

26. Barua, Nirendra lall

27. Basu, Bhupal Chandra

28. Bawl, Loknath

29. Bera ,Govinda

30. Bharatwar, Shyama Charan

31. Bhattacharjee, Ananta Kumar

32. Bhattacharjee. Bhupesh Chandra

33. Bhattacharjee, Bimal Chandra: His account given at the age of 89 is covered in a 2001 Guardian article.

34. Bhattacharjee, Chandra Nath

35. Bhattacharjee,Dhirendra Kumar

36. Bhattacharjee, Haripada: Could be Haripad Bhattacharya. Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Length of stay unclear.

37. Bhattacharjee, Hem Chandra

38. Bhattacharjee, Hrishikesh: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Originally sentenced for life.

39. Bhattacharjee,Joyesh Chandra

40. Bhattacharjee, khudi Ram

41. Bhattacharjee, koumudi Kanta

42. Bhattacharjee, Saradindra

43. Bhattacharjee, Shashi Mohan

44. Bhattacharjee, Sudir Chandra

45. Bhowmick, Bimal Chandra Dey: Sentenced in the Arms Act Case of 1935. Visited the Andamans on 10th March 2006 on the Centenary Celebration of the Cellular Jail.[118]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 271.

46. Bhowmick, Himanshu: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Length of stay unclear.

47. Bhowmick, Mahendra

48. Bhowmick, Prafulla Chandra

49. Biswas,Bhagwan Chandra

50. Biswas, Chittaranjan

51. Biswas ,Dharni kanta

52. Biswas, Dhirendra Kumar

53. Biswas, Krishna

54. Biswas, Prafulla Kumar

55. Bose, Benoy Kumar

56. Bose, Haripada

57. Bose, Hrishikesh

58. Bose, Jagath Bandhu

59. Bose, Pramod Ranjan

60. Bose, Saradha Prasanna

61. Bose, Satyendra Kumar

62. Bux, Mohd. Illahi

63. Chakraborty, Ananta Kumar, S/o Chandra Mohan Debasarma

64. Chakraborty, Ananta Kumar, S/o Durga Mohan Chakraborty

65. Chakraborty, Bankim Chandra: His account given at the age of 89 is covered in a 2001 Guardian article. Was sentenced for holding up a post office.

66. Chakraborty, Bijoy Krishna

67. Chakraborty, Bimalendu

68. Chakraborty, Biru Bhushan

69. Chakraborty, Dharni Kanta

70. Chakraborty, Dhirendra

71. Chakraborty, Direndra Chandra

72. Chakraborty, Haribol

73. Chakraborty, Hemendra Nath

74. Chakraborty, Jeetendra Nath

75. Chakraborty, Jogendra Chandra

76. Chakraborty, Jogesh Chandra

77. Chakraborty, Kalachand

78. Chackraborty, Kalipada, S/o Ram Chandra Chakraborty

79. Chackraborty, Kalipada , S/o Shyam Charan Chakraborty

Note: Either #78 or #79 was an Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Originally sentenced for life.

80. Chackraborty, Krishna Pada

81. Chackraborty, Lalit Chandra

82. Chackraborty, Mokshada Ranjan

83. Chackraborty, Nibaran Chandra

84. Chackraborty, Pran Kishore: Could be Pran Krishan Chackraborty. Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Originally sentenced for life.

85. Chackraborty Priyada Nandan

86. Chackraborty, Provot Chandra

87. Chackraborty, Rajendra Nath

88. Chackraborty, Shanti Pada

89. Chackraborty, Shashindra

90. Chackraborty, Susheel Kumar

91. Chackraborty, S.N.

92. Chandra, Bhuban mohan

93. Chandrika Singh

94. Chatterjee, Anukul Chandra

95. Chatterjee, Daeubesh Chandra

96. Chatterjee, Hira Mohan

97. Chatterjee, Keshab Lal

98. Chatterjee, Ramesh Chandra

99. Chatterjee, Sunil Kumar

100. Chaubey, Suraj Nath

101. Chaudhury Abdul Qadir: Could be Abdul Kader. Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Length of sentence and time served unclear.

102. Chaudhury, Akshay Kumar

103. Chaudhury, Birendra Vinod

104. Chaudhury, Dhirendra Nath: His account was covered in a 2001 Guardian article. He was interviewed at the age of 95.

105. Chaudhury, Haripado: Correct spelling should be Haripada. His account is covered in a 2001 Guardian article. He was sentenced for procuring a pistol that was used to wound a British newspaper editor in Calcutta.

106. Chaudhury, Kali prasanna Roy

107. Chaudhury, Madan Mohan Roy

108. Chaudhury, Kshtij Chandra

109. Chaudhury, Manindra Lall

110. Chaudhury, Manoranjan

111. Chaudhury, Nishakanti Roy

112. Chaudhury, Nitya Ranjan

113. Chaudhury, Paresh Chandra

114. Chaudhury, Pradyot Kumar

115. Chaudhury, S.N.

116. Choudhari, Subodh Kumar: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Originally sentenced for life.

117. Choudhari, Sudhir Ranjan: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Originally sentenced for life.

118. Chaudhury, Surendra Dhar

119. Dam, Sudhendra Chandra

120. Das, Chintaharan

121. Das, Deb Kumar

122. Das, Dhirendra Chandra,S/o Jogindera Kishore Das

123. Das, Dhirendra Chandra

124. Das, Dinesh Chandra, S/o Mahesh Das

125. Das, Dinesh Chandra, S/o Raj Mohan Das

126. Das, Durga Shankar

127. Das, Gauranga Das

128. Das, Harendra

129. Das, Hirday Kanta

130. Das, Hirday Ranjan

131. Das, Indu Bhushan

132. Das, Jagnesshwar

133. Das, Janaki Mohan

134. Das ,Jibendra Kumar

135. Das, Jogesh Chandra

136. Das ,Karthick Chandra

137. Das, Nalini Mohan

138. Das, Nanigopal

139. Das, Narendra Nath

140. Das, Ramesh Chandra

141. Das, Sharat Dhupi

142. Das, Sahay Ram: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Originally sentenced for life.

143. Das, Suresh Chandra

144. Dasgupta, Bimal Kumar

145. Dasgupta, Dinesh Chandra

146. Dasgupta. Madan Lal

147. Dasgupta, Nagendra Nath

148. Dasgupta, Nandlal

149. Dasgupta, NAnigopal

150. Dasgupta ,Phani Bhushan

151. Dasgupta, Randhir: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Originally sentenced for life.

152. Dasgupta, Sudhangshu Lall

153. Dasgupta, Sudhangshu Bhushan

154. Dasgupta, Susheel Kumar

155. Dastidar, Sukhdendu Bikas: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Originally sentenced for life.

156. Deb, Biraj Mohan

157. Deb, Chunni Lal

158. Dey, Ananta Lal

159. Dey,Arvind

160. Dey,Gagan Chandra

161. Dey,Gopal Chandra

162. Dey, Haripada

163. Dey, Jamini Kumar

164. Dey, Jyotindra Chandra

165. Dey, Kali Kinkar: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Length of stay unclear.

166. Dey,Kamini Kumar

167. Dey, Kiran Chandra: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Length of sentence and time served unclear.

168. Dey, Kirpa Nath

169. Dey, Makhan Lall

170. Dey, Nagendra Lall

171. Dey, Rakhal Chandra

172. Dey, Susheel Kumar

173. Dey, Usha Ranjan

174. Dey, Manen Chandra

175. Dhanvantari

176. Dhar, Dinesh Chandra

177. Dubey, Gauri Shankar

178. Dutt Batukeshwar: Was sentenced for the 1929 Assembly bomb throwing incident.

179. Dutta, Atul Chandra

180. Dutta, Chittaranjan

181. Dutta, Dhirendra Chandra

182. Dutta, Gaur Gopal

183. Dutta, Harihar

184. Dutta, Hemchandra

185. Dutt, Madhusudhan

186. Dutta, Manindra Lall

187. Dutta ,Manmath Nath

188. Dutta, Mathura Nath

189. Dutta, Nripendra

190. Dutta, Rajat Bhushan

191. Dutta, Santhosh

192. Dutta, Saillesh Chandra

193. Dutta, Surendra Nath

194. Ganguly, Mani

195. Ganguly, Ramani Rajan

196. Gaya Prasad ,Dr.: Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear.

197. Ghatak, Achyut Nath

198. Ghosh, Abani Ranjan

199. Ghosh, Barindra Kumar: The brother of Aurobindo Ghosh. Convicted in Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others, also known as Alipore Bomb Case/Manicktolla bomb conspiracy/Muraripukur conspiracy. Was originally sentenced to death, which was later commuted to life imprisonment in the Andamans. Despite being a dual British and Indian national, he did not request to be tried as a British national, which would have resulted in a more lenient sentence, and in a British prison, not a British-Indian prison.  Strangely enough, he allegedly escapes the Cellular Jail in 1915 and joins Bagha Jatin in Balasore. This is downright unbelievable. He is allegedly caught and sent back to the Cellular Jail, but is released in 1920. (assuming he was in the Cellular Jail).

200. Ghosh , Bijoy Kumar

201. Ghosh, Ganesh: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Length of stay unclear.

202. Ghosh,Kamakya Charan

203. Ghosh, Kumud Nath

204. Ghosh, Narendra Chandra

205. Ghosh, Narendra Prasad

206. Ghosh, Pramtha Nath

207. Ghosh, Pravot Chandra

208. Ghosh, Parimal

209. Ghosh, Sata Ranjan

210. Ghosh, Samarendra Nath

211. Ghosh, Sudhir Chandra

212. Ghoshsu,Kumar

213. Gope, Radha Ballabh

214. Goswami, Murari Mohan

215. Goswami, Prabir Kumar

216. Goswami, Purna Chandra

217. Goswami, Shridhar

218. Guha, Buphesh Chandra

219. Guha, Bidhu Bhushan

220. Guha ,Jogendra Nath

221. Guha, Nirmalendu

222. Guha, Paresh Chandra

223. Guha, Saroj Kanti

224. Gupta, Ananda Prasad

225. Gupta, Gnanan Govinda

226. Gupta, Gulab Chand

227. Gupta, Jeetendra Nath

228. Gupta , Nagendra Nath

229. Gupta, Sachindra Lal Kar

230. Gupta, Surendra Nath Dutta

231. Gurumukh Singh

232. Hazara Singh: May be an overlap of #51 in Section III.

233. Home, Sachindra Chandra

234. Kapoor, Jaidev: Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear.

235. Kar, Govinda Chandra: May be an overlap of Govindcharan Kar, #67 under Part III.

236. Karanji, Raj Mohan

237. Karmakar, Babhathosh

238. Karamakar, Bholanath Ray

239. Karamakar, Subal Chandra Roy

240. Keor, Uma Shankar

241. Keshav Prasad, Dr.

242. Khanger Haran Chandra

243. Konar, Harekrishna

244. Kundan Lal: Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear.

245. Lahiri, Birendra Chandra Dr .

246. Lahiri, Sudhanghshu kiran

247. Lalit Mohan Singh

248. Lashkar, Vinay bhushan

249. Mahavir Singh: Also spelt as Mahabir Singh? Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear. Gets a mention in a 2001 Guardian article. He died during a hunger strike.

250. Majumder, Jitendra Chandra Dey

251. Majumder, Jyotish

252. Majumdar, Kirti

253. Majumdar, Prafulla Kumar

254. Majumdar, Satyendra Narayan

255. Majumdar, Sudhangshu Narayan Das

256. Malay Krishan Brahmachari

257. Malik Rakhal Das

258. Mathur, Viswanathan

259. Mehta, Kushiram

260. Mishra, Kanhai Lal

261. Missir, Mahavir

262. Mitra, Ajit Kumar

263. Mitra, Amulya Charan

264. Mitra, Pravot Kumar

265. Mitra ,Sachindra Nath:

266. Mitra, Satish Mohan

267. Mohmmed Ibrahim

268. Molla, Jeevan

269. Mondal, Upendra

270. Modak, Nagendra Chandra

271. Moitra, Mohit

272. Mukherjee, Abani Kumar

273. Mukherjee, Abhay Pada

274. Mukherjee, Amarendra Nath

275. Mukherjee, Amritendra Nath

276. Mukherjee, Ananta Kumar

277. Mukherjee, Anil Chandra

278. Mukherjee, Jagananda

279. Mukherjee, Kumud Bihari

280. Mukherjee, Pran Gopal

281. Mustafa, Nagendra Mohan

282. Nag ,Adhir Ranjan: Sentenced in the Arms Action Case of 1932. Visited the Andamans on 10th March 2006 on the Centenary Celebration of the Cellular Jail.[119]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 271.

283. Nag, Mohan Lal

284. Naha , Dwijendra Nath

285. Namadav, Mohan Kishore

286. Nanda, Dulal Singh

287. Nandi ,Phanindra Lall: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Length of stay unclear.

288. Nandi, Sachindra Kumar

289. Nanku Singh

290. Narayan, Shyamdev

291. Niyogi, Ravindra Chandra

292. Pal, Ananda Charan

293. Panda, Bhupal Chandra

294. Patitunta, Bhaba Ranjan

295. Prakashi, Satish Chandran

296. Prem Prakash

297. Puran Chand

298. RahaL,Lalit Chandra

299. Ram Partap Singh:

300. Ram Singh

301. Ray, Narayan Chandra

302. Roy, Samadish Chandra

303. Roy, Amulya Kumar

304. Roy, Bangeswar

305. Roy, Benoy Bhusan Dey

306. Roy, Birendra Nath

307. Roy, Dharindhar

308. Roy, Gopendra Lall: Possible overlap with #114 in Part III.

309. Roy, Jagat Bandhu

310. Roy ,Jyotirmoy: An Anushilan Samity member sentenced to six years.

311. Roy, Kalipada

312. Roy, Khokha

313. Roy, Krishna Chandra

314. Roy, Moti Lall

315. Roy, Mukul Chandra

316. Roy, Nikhil Ranjan Guha: Sentenced to ten years in the Shibpur Dacoity case of 1915. Linked to Anushilan Samity.

317. Roy, Prabodh Kumar

318. Roy, Pravas Chandra

319. Roy, Ravindra Nath Ghuha

320. Roy, Samadish

321. Roy, Sanatan

322. Roy, Saroj Bhushan

323. Roy, Satish Chandra Bose

324. Roy, Satyendra Chandra

325. Roy, Sailesh Chandra

326. Roy, Sitangshu Bhushan Dutta

327. Roy, Subodh Chandra: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Originally sentenced for life.

328. Roy, Sudhindra Mohan

329. Roy, Sudhir Chandra

330. Roy, Surendhra Mohan Kar

331. Sahay, Ram Chandra

332. Samajdar, Harbandhu

333. Samajdar, Kasbah Chandra

334. Samajdar, Ramendra Nath

335. Samajdar, Sudhir Kumar

336. Sanyal, Prafulla Narayan: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Length of sentence and time served unclear.

337. Sarkar, Bimal Kumar

338. Sarkar, Gamiruddin

339. Sarkar, Kartack: Sentenced in 1934 in the conspiracy to murder the Additional Magistrate and the Additional Superintendent of Police, Midnapur. Visited the Andamans on 10th March 2006 on the Centenary Celebration of the Cellular Jail.[120]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 271.

340. Sarkar, Rajani kanta

341. Sarkar, Nepal Chandra

342. Sarkar, Ramakrishna: Could be Ram Krishan Sarkar. Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Length of sentence and time served unclear.

343. Sarkhel, Surendra Nath

344. Satyabrata Chakraborty: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Originally sentenced for life.

345. Sen, Bidhu Bhushan

346. Sen, Fakir Chand: Could be Faqir Chandra Sen Gupta. Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Length of stay unclear.

347. Sen, Lal Mohan: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case of 1932. Length of stay unclear. He later informed authorities of a secret bomb-making factory on the island maintained by prisoners, and a plot to flee the islands using boats.[121]Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 170. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022. Savarkar may have been involved in this.

348. Sen, Manindra Chandra

349. Sen, Shanti Gopal

350. Sen,Suneermal

351. Sengupta, Amulya Charan

352. Sengupta,Bijon Kumar

353. Sengupta, Mukul Ranjan

354. Sengupta, Nalini Ranjan

355. Sengupta, Niranjan

356. Sengupta, Prasannata Kumar

357. Sengupta ,Sudhangshu Kumar

358. Sengupta, Sukumar

359. Shaha, Anaath Bandhu

360. Shaha, Bhupesh Chandra

361. Shaha, Bidhyadhar

362. Shaha ,Dinesh Chandra

363. Shaha, Gopi Mohan

364. Shaha ,Haridas

365. Shaha, Manmohan

366. Shaha, Revati Mohan

367. Shaha, Upendra Nath

368. Shambu, Nath Azaad

369. Sharma, Bharat Chandra

370. Sheel, Prakash Chandra

371. Shivam, Sachidananda

372. Shrimani, Kamala kanta

373. Shukla ,Jogendra: Correct name should be Yogendra. Well known freedom fighter.

374. Shukla, Kedarmani

375. Sinha, Bejoy Kumar: Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear.

376. Siraj-ul-Haq

377. Sutradhar, Amar Chandra

378. Talpatra, Dwijendra Nath

379. Talikdar, Bebhesh Chandra

380. Talukdar,Debendra Kumar

381. Tarafdar, Benoy Kumar

382. Thakurta ,Jeevan Krishto

383. Thakurta, Manoranjan

384. Tiwari, Kamalnath /Kanwal Nath Trivedi: Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear.

385. Venkateshawar Rao, Prativadi Bhayankara

386. Verma, Shiv: Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear.

Possible Unlisted Prisoners:

  • Kishori Lal: Sentenced in the Delhi Assembly Bombing Case of 1930 in which Bhagat Singh was prime accused. Associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The length of the sentence is unclear.
  • Saroj Kumar Basu: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Length of sentence and time served unclear.
  • Hari Pada Basu: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Length of sentence and time served unclear.
  • Kali Pada Sarkar: Anushilan Samity operative sentenced in the Hilli Railway Station looting of 1933. Length of sentence and time served unclear.

Part VI – Members of INA and IIL, Andaman Branch incarcerated in the Cellular Jail under False Spy Cases & later killed during the Japanese Occupation of the Islands 1942-45

Shot Dead at Dugnabad (Port Blair) on 30th March 1943

1. Narayan Rao

2. Itter Singh

3. Gopal krishana

4. Dr. Surendre Nath Nag

5. Andul Khaliq

6. Sub. Suba Khan

7. Chota Singh

Shot Dead at Homfraygunj on 30th January 1944

1. Abdul Jalil

2. Anant lal

3. Bachan Singh

4. Balwant Singh

5. Bunta Singh

6. Bakshi Singh

7. Basant Lal

8. Dulpat Ram

9. Dulip Singh

10. Farzand Ali

11. Fazal Beg

12. Fazal Hussain

13. Gulam Sarvar

14. Gajjan Singh

15. Gyan Singh

16. Gopal Singh

17. Hira Singh Chawla

18. Hammam Singh

19. H.H. Rahlkar

20. Jaswant Singh

21. Jauaram Tiwari

22. Kaur Singh Chawla

23. Kamail Singh

24. Lakshman Dass Sankwa

25. Mohar Singh

26. Malkhan Singh

27. Mulki Raj

28. Mir Alam

29. Mahima Singh

30. Mohammed Khan

31. Noor Hussain Malik

32. Noor Ahamed

33. Noor Mahi

34. Prem Shanker Pandey

35. Pokar Singh Chawla

36. Paras Ram

37. Pratap Nath Nag

38. Radha Kishan

39. Ratan Chand

40. Raj Ratan Dass

41. Satyan Dass

42. Sahib Singh

43. Dr. Sher Singh

44. Uttam Singh

Tortured to Death in the Cellular Jail

1. Bagwan Dass

2. Bakshish Singh

3. Baldev Sahai Gidru

4. Bhikam Singh

5. Charanji Lal

6. Dr.Diwan Singh Dhillon: Dr. Diwan Singh Dhillon originally came to the islands as a political prisoner in 1927. [122]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 301. But he decided to settle down in the islands and became a fulltime volunteer in spreading literacy, medical aid and development among the aboriginals. The Japanese tortured him for 82 days before he breathed his last on 14th January 1944.[123]S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 305.

7. Dhanak Dhari Lal

8. Faizul Hassan

9. Farman Shah

10. Gulab Khan

11. Hari Kishen

12. Lal Singh

13. Moti Ram

14. Niranjan Lal

15. Patti Ram

16. Santa Singh

17. Sangara Singh

18. Santa Singh

19. Muthu Swamy Naidu V.

The Erroneous Stone Plaques at the Cellular Jail

Commenter “Pulak” has brought to my attention photos of a list inscribed on stone plaques at the Cellular Jail. The source is the semi-official Facebook page for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, many thanks to them. The list appears to be identical to the one above, however the previous typed list consists of 966 entries whereas the stone plaques have been trimmed down to 513 entries, resulting in a deficit of 453 entries. It is unclear what criteria was used. The prisoners on the plaques now seem to be limited to home states in British India which became part of independent India only. And these states do not seem to be arranged alphabetically. For example, After Bombay and Punjab, the list jumps to the United Province and then to Bengal. The effect of keeping Bombay on the first plaque results in the weary traveler remembering that the Savarkar brothers made it to the list.

Therefore the previous typed list should be considered as more comprehensive and authoritative. The stone plaques are still an interesting representation nevertheless. We find that all of independent India is dwarfed by the contribution of Bengal.

References
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2 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 7.
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4 Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.
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18 Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 376-377.
19 Bhai Parmanand, trans. Sundra Iyer and Lal Chand Dhawan, The Story of my Life (Lahore: The Central Hindu Yuvak Sabha: 1934). p. 149.
20 Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.
21 Wikipedia contributors, “Richard Carnac Temple,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Carnac_Temple&oldid=1118539719 (accessed November 1, 2022).
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31 Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 <https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy> Accessed 07/09/2015.
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35 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 305.
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38 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 25.
39 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 26.
40 Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy Accessed 07/09/2015.
41 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 241.
42 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 42.
43 Quoting M. V. Portman in A History of our Relations with the Andamanese. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
44 Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
45 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
46 Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
47 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
48 Quoting M. V. Portman in A History of our Relations with the Andamanese. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
49 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 39.
50 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
51 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
52 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
53 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
54 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 39.
55 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
56 Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
57 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
58 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
59 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
60 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 38.
61 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 6.
62 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
63 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
64 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
65 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
66 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
67 Quoting Prof. Chintamani Shukal in Yatnabhumi Andaman ka Romanchkari Itehas. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
68 Quoting The Who’s Who of Indian Martyrs (Publication Division, The Government of India, Delhi, 1973, Vol. III). S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 40.
69 Quoting M. V. Portman in A History of our Relations with the Andamanese. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
70 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.
71 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.
72 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.
73 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.
74 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.
75 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 63.
76 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 63.
77 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 63-65.
78 Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy, “Survivors of Our Hell,” The Guardian – International Edition 23/06/2001 <https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/jun/23/weekend.adrianlevy> Accessed 07/09/2015.
79 Quoting L. P. Mathur. S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 41.
80 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 62.
81 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 70.
82 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 198.
83 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 202.
84 Anuj Dhar, What Happened to Netaji? (New Delhi: Vitastaa Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2016) 64
85 Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 158. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022.
86 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 109.
87 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 188.
88 Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 179. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022.
89 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 121.
90 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 199.
91 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.
92 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 105.
93 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 102.
94 Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 166. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022.
95 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 121.
96 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.
97 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 103.
98 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.
99 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 181.
100 Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 280 <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022.
101 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.
102 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 105.
103 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 199.
104 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.
105 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.
106 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.
107 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 198.
108 Vinayak Chaturvedi, Hindutva and Violence: V. D. Savarkar and the Politics of History (New York: State University of New York Press 2022) p. 114.
109 Bhai Parmanand, trans. Sundra Iyer and Lal Chand Dhawan, The Story of my Life (Lahore: The Central Hindu Yuvak Sabha: 1934). p. 126.
110 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 109.
111 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 213.
112 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.
113 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 196.
114 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 205.
115 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 242.
116 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 6.
117 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 248.
118 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 271.
119 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 271.
120 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 271.
121 Vinayak D. Savarkar, The Story of MY TRANSPORTATION FOR LIFE (A Biography of Black days of Andamans) Trans. From the Marathi original Maazi Janmathep by V. N. Naik (Ebook by Chandrashekhar V. Sane, 2016) p. 170. <https://library.bjp.org/jspui/handle/123456789/292> Accessed 12/12/2022.
122 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 301.
123 S.N. Agarwal. The Heroes of the Cellular Jail Rev. Edition (New Delhi: Rupa) 305.
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67 Responses

  1. Upadhyay Rathi RajNo Gravatar says:

    Is Ghouse, Ghulam the same person who was probably captured by the British during the battle for Jhansi?
    Ghulam Ghouse Khan was the Artillery Chief of Rani Lakshmi Bai. His name is missing after the battle.
    The time-period of incarceration probably indicates that.

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      I do not know. A lot of details of the last battle of the Rani of Jhansi are obscure. Please do add any additional information that you may have.

  2. Baljit HayerNo Gravatar says:

    I am trying to locate information for my grandfather who was imprisoned at Kaala Paani jail. His name was Sunder Singh Sandhu from village of Khatkar Kalan in Punjab. He was one of the very few to be actually released from there. Would there be any list with released prisoner names that i could check? I have found number 252 on the list with name listed only as Sandu (im thinking could this be him listed only with his family name as this may be how they spelled the name at the time). I would appreciate any help possible. Many thanks in advance

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      There is a Sunder Singh #140, under Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21.
      The Sandu you found is under Part I – Heroes of 1857 (10th March 1858 onwards).

      Do you have any dates you can correlate with?

      • Baljit HayerNo Gravatar says:

        Although the name Sunder Singh is correct the period of 1909-21 doesnt really fit.
        The Sandu in Part 1 does cover the right period i think.
        Is there anyway of finding out more information on Sunder Singh and Sandu?
        All i know is that my grandfather is from the same ancestral family as Shaheed Bhagat Singh and was a school teacher who was charged with the murder of a schoolboy and sentenced to life imprisonment at Kala Paani. I dont have actual dates but based on when he would have been released i think he would have been sent to jail sometime between 1880-1900 and then released sometime between 1905-1911.
        Appreciate any help you could provide. Thank you

      • Baljit HayerNo Gravatar says:

        As i can’t be absolutely sure of the dates it would be helpful if i could find out some more information on Sunder Singh 140 and Sandu 152 to be able to identify. Is there anyone i can contact for this?
        Also how would i go about finding newspaper articles that may have covered my grandfathers case at the time?

      • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

        You will be able to find archived copies of all important newspapers of that time in some select libraries, I believe there may be around five in all of India. Also, since these were usually British papers, you will definitely find their archives in Britain. You could assign the task to someone in Britain for some fees.

  3. snigdhendu bNo Gravatar says:

    there should be 585 names between 1909 and 1938. but in these 18 plaques i can count only 513. What’s the mystery?

  4. Karim Zia ZamanNo Gravatar says:

    My great grandfather is not on the list. His name was Malik Multan Khan Awan. He was there just prior to 1900.

  5. Hassan Masood FatianaNo Gravatar says:

    I am from Pakistan. My ancestors were also arrested againts “Gugera Movement” for terision against British government. They were sent to “Andaman Island or Kalapani Jail” right after 1857. Their name was Maher Murad Ahmed Khan Fatiana and Maher Bahawal Khan Fatiana. At that time a man succeeded to escape from that ship and he told that Mehar Murad was shot on his right hand and he did’t survived due to his wound. But Maher Bahawal later married to a girl of a tribe their. My grandfather also received a letter from his sons but unfortunately he misplaced that letter somewhere due to which we were unable to even respond that letter. They told in that letter that they are serving as police officers in India and plz do contact us. Can anyone here who can help us? Its a humble request for all of you because I am seeking for help just to reunite my family.

    Regards,
    Hassan Masood Fatiana.

  6. BJPMEMBERSNo Gravatar says:

    I ,BISWARUP GUHA GRANDSON OF THE ELDESTBROTHER (LATE, MAKHANLALBOSE ) OF DR. BHUPAL CHANDRA BOSE ,WAS GOOD & FAVOURATE STUDENT OF DR. BIDAN CHANDRA BOSE .AS HE WAS ARRESTED BY BRITISH POLISH,AT THE TIME OF ATTEMPTO KILL BARBARRUS TAGERD SAHAB{(THAT TIME ~1922 ),GOVERNER HERE IN KOLKATA AS KOLKATA WAS CAPITAL OF INDIA THAT TIME } IN DISGUISE WAS ARRESTED BY BRTISH POLISH AND WAS ORDERED TO HANG UNTILL DEATH WITH LOT OF TRIAL HIS PUNISHMENT WAS REDUCED TO LIFETIME IMPRISONMENT IN ANDAMAN CELLULAR JAIL AND AGAIN OUR FOREFATHERS TRIED TO REDUCE THE PUNISHMEN AND LASTLY HIS PUNISHMENT WAS REDUCED TO IMPRISONMENT OF 25 YEARS JAIN IN ANDAMAN CELLULAR JAIL.ACCORDINGLY HE WAS SENT TO ANDAMAN BY BRITISH GOVT. AND OUR GRANDFATHERS (BROTHERS OF DR.BHUPAL CH. BOSE) HAD BIG FAMALY AUTOMABILE BUSINESSES ALLOVER WESTBENGAL (THAT TIME ) EVERYTHING WAS CEASED BY BRITISH GOVT. AS DR. BOSE WAS ARRESTED.DR. BOSE IN THAT CELL (AS HE WAS SENT) APPLIED TO BRITISH GOVT. TO STUDY BSc. THROUGH CORROSPONDANCE THERE IN THAT CELL ,BRITH ALLOWED TO STUDY HIM ,BUT AFTER STAYING ~12 YEAR THERE HE WAS PARALYSED AND THEN HE WAS BROUGH TO KOLKATA IN GOALPARK AREA(RIGHT NOW THE NAME OF THIS PLACE, LAKE AREA) WHERE OUR GRANDFATHER AND HIS OTHER YOUNGER BROTHERS ,AND THERE PARENT WERE STAYING IN A RENTAL HOUSE ( AS THEY GET LOST EVERYTHING ,THAT TIME),AND ALLTHE TIME BRITSH POLISE WERE FOLLOWING HIM 24 HOURS EVEN AS ANY FOOD OR DRINKS ,ETC .WAS GIVEN TO HIM WAS VERY CONFIRMLY CHACKED .AS SOON AS HE GET RECOVERED AGAIN HE WAS SENT TO THAT CELL THAT TIME THAT FATHER OF OUR GRADFATHER & OF HIS BROTHERS WAS DIED BY HEART ATTACK BY THINKING ABOUT DR. BOSE’S PUNISHMENT. WITH VERY HEARD AND SOAL EFFORT LATE. MAKHANLAL BOSE HAD ABLE TO EDUCATE HIS & HIS YOUNGER BROTHARS (DR. BOSE WAS UNMARRIED ) 12 CHILDREN . BUT FAILED TO PROVIDE GOOD(FINANCIALY GOOD) HUSBAND TO HIS DOUGHTERS.FOR THIS THE CHILDREN OF HIS DOUGHTERS WERE NOT YET ABLE TO STAND ON THEIR FOOTS.IT IS THE TRAGIDY.AS INDIA GOT INDEPANDANCE ON 1947 DR. BOSE WAS RELEASED ~1 YEARS BEFOR THE COMPLISION OF 25 YEARS IMPRISONMENT IN ANDAMAN JAIL.. THAT TIME NEHARU(WHO WAS VERY VERY BAD ,NARROMINDED) JUST GAVE BOSE FAMALY JAST 2 TAXIES & A BUS AGAINT THOSE PROPERTIES (WHICH WAS CEASED BY BRITISH GOVT..) AND SOME SPECIAL FREEDOM FIGHTER PENSION & A TAMRAPATRA.NOTHING ELSE. BY FRASTRATION DR. BOSE REJECTED HIS SIR’S(DR. BIDHAN CHANDRA ROY) OFFER TO PARTICIPATE IN HIS MINTRY (AS DR. B. C. ROY WAS C.M. OF WESTBENGAL). IT IS THE ACTIVITES OF CONGRESS PEOPLE .EVERYBODY KNOW THESE ACTIVIES OF CONGRESS PEOPLE ( LEADED BY NEXT THE GENERATIONS OF NEHARU,-THE GANDHI FAMALY WAS CONTINUED UPTO MONMOHAN SHINGH’S PERIOD.IT IS OUR REQUEST TO BJP GOVT. TO PROVIDE SOME HELP TO THE PERSENT GENERATION BELONGING FROM THIS GREAT BOSE FAMALY AS THEY EVEN FAILED TO GET MASTERED DEGREE IN UNVERSITY DUE TO LACK OF THE MONEY.. IT IS ALSO OUR REQUEST TO THIS “WEBSITE BUILDER” TO ENLIST DR. BHUPAL CHANDRA BOSE’S NAME IN THE LIST ( AS WE RIGHT NOW HAVE FOUND DR. BOSE’S NAME IS NOT ATTCHED HERE ) OF THESE FREEDOMFIGHTERS WHO HAVE ALLREADY ENLISTED HERE IN THIS SITE AS INCARCERATED FREEDOMFIGHTER IN CELLULAR JAIL.. DR. BHUPAL CH.BOSE ‘ S NAME IS STILL EXIST ON THE FRONT OF THE CELL IN ” ANDAMAN CELULAR JAIL ” WHERE HE HAD TO SPENT ~25 YEARS SINCE THE VERY BEGINING OF HIS YOUTH .. SOME OF THE COUSIN BROTHERS OF LATE MAKHANLAL BOSE WAS VERY CLOSE WITH DR. SHAYA PRASAD MOOKHARJEE AS CLOSED FRIEND , PHILOSOPHER ,AS WELL AS HIS GUIDE.
    THANKS
    ON BEHEAF OF BOSE FAMALY
    CENTRAL KOLKATA BJP MEMBERS

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      I have not been able to locate Bhupal Chandra Bose on the list, though there are two other Bhupal Chandras with other surnames. I cannot add it, as it is not “my” list. However, you can probably give us additional information, such as citations in books, magazines etc about him.

  7. biswarup guhaNo Gravatar says:

    I , AS A GRANDSON OF THE ELDEST BROTHER(LATE. MAKHANLAL BOSE) OF GREATE FREEDOMFITHER DR. BHUPAL CHANDRA BOSE( WAS GOOD & FAVOURATE STUDENT OF DR. BIDHAN CHANDRA ROY, C.M OF W.B)LAFT ~25 Y. OF LIFE IN ANDAMAN CELULAR JAIL( RELEASED ~ 1 YEAR BEFORE COMPITION OF 25 .Y.S AS WE GOT FREEDOM ON 1947)AS HE WAS COUGHT BY BRITISIH POLICE AT TIME OF ATTEMPT TO KILL BURBORRUS TEGATARD SAHAB( BRITISH GOVORNER) ,HE WAS ORDERED TO HANG UNTILL DEATH, BUT WITH LOT OF TRIAL PUNISMET LASTLY REDUCED TO 25 Y.S IMPRISONMENT IN ANDAMAN CELULAR JAIL.ALL FAMALY BIG AUTOMOBILE BUSINESSES OF BOSE FAMALY ALLOVER WESTBENGAL WAS CEASED BY BRITISH GOVT. AFTER INDEPANDANCE NAHARU (EXTRIMLY BAD PERSON ) ONLY GAVE 2 TAXIES & A BUS AGAINST THOSE HUGE PROPERTIES.AND SANCANED A FEW SPECIAL FREDOMFIGHTER PENSION, & A TAMRAPATRA.DR. BOSE WAS UNMARRIED.IT IS REQUESTED TO PRESENT BJP GOVT. TO HELP DR. BOSE ‘S ELDEST BROTHER’S GRANDCHILDREN SO THAT THEY CAN STAND ON THEIR OWN FOOT. AS SINCE NEHARU CONGRESS NOT ANY HELP SERVICE PROVIDED TO THIS FAMALY. GRANDCHILDEN ARE IN VERY DISTRESS CONDITION.DUE TO LACK OF MONEY THEY HAVE NOT ABLE TO TAKE EVEN EDUCATION IN UNIVESCITY IN MASTERDEGREE.DR. BOSE NAME IS ALSO ON THE CELULAR JAIL ON THE CELL WHERE HE HAD TO PASS ~25 YEARS SINCE HIS VERY BEGININH OF HIS YOUTH LIFE. HERE IS ALSO REQUESTED TO THIS SITE BUIDER TO ATTACH DR. BHUPAL CHANDRA BOSE ‘S NAME & IMAGE HERE.AS AS GREATE FREEDOMFIGHTER. WISH COOPERATION FROM BJP GOVT. AFFTER ALLTIME OF NARROW ,CONSERVATIVE MINDED CONGRESS GOVT. -CHEATED POOR INDIAN.

  8. Qubad uddin AhmedNo Gravatar says:

    I salute all the freedom fighter who sacrificed themselves for us.
    Britisher did not include thousands and thousands freedom fighter name.

  9. Jane DoswellNo Gravatar says:

    I was travelling from Port Blair by ship in 1992 and shared a 1st class cabin with my husband and a couple elderly freedom fighters. I was unwell and these gentlemen and their assistants looked after me and showed wonderful kindness. We were young British tourists and we listened to their stories and enjoyed our trip together. This is one of my favourite memories of India and in my own life. I wish I had written down the names of these brave men.

  10. Shitu kumar barua. chittagong bangladesh.No Gravatar says:

    Freedom fighters incarcerated in cellular jail. name plate no 13,serial no 183. Mahesh Barua . pls write Mahesh barua life history.

  11. AltafNo Gravatar says:

    Sangoli Rayanna followers list may be added who got life imprisonment

  12. Abhilash K SNo Gravatar says:

    I really believe Indian government should patronize each and every Nationalist who suffered there. No one knows about these people.

  13. Imran HaiderNo Gravatar says:

    i am grandson of Nadir Ali Shah of Kasur,punjab,pakistan.My grandfather was accused of a speech against british raj during a protest in Kasur for Jalianwala bagh incident.Still looking for details about my grandfather durin/after prison.

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      In Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21, see prisoner 96, Nadir Ali Shah. I suppose thats him! Can you please give us additional details about him?

  14. A M RNo Gravatar says:

    Very proud that many Muslims sacrificed their life for the sake of nation. Nowadays pseudo patriotics says Muslims did nothing for the nation freedom movements. Cellular jail is the standing evidence for those hiding the history..

  15. Hasrat aliNo Gravatar says:

    Really appreciated good work .
    i want to knw District wise list in Budaun up if available please share
    thanks

  16. Vijay PatelNo Gravatar says:

    Andaman ki Tapashya ko Jane, Bharatiy Hutatma Santano ko Mane, Bharat Badhaye.JAI HIND…VANDE MATRAM

  17. Deependra SinghNo Gravatar says:

    Pls add one more name Shree Mohan Lal Singh , Dist. Mainpuri , Uttarpradesh

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Under Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21, prisoner No. 80 is listed as Lal Singh, S/o Mohan Singh. Would that be him?

  18. S N SaxenaNo Gravatar says:

    very nice efforts by Hamad Subani. It is perfect time to pay our tribute to these martyres

  19. Amlan BasuNo Gravatar says:

    Just to add one more information that I missed about Sachindra Nath Dutta (No. 33 under Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21)
    is, he also had a son who was a teacher in West Bengal Board of Education.

  20. PulakNo Gravatar says:

    List of Freedom Fighters Incarcerated in Cellular Jail (1909-1938)

    https://www.facebook.com/Andaman.Nicobar/posts/10155101190825216

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Although I do not find the list on those stone plaques to be authoritative, I have still updated the article with the pictures of those plaques. I believe that by providing information on the home provinces of some of the prisoners, the photos do contribute to the purpose of this post.

  21. Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

    I now have some additional context on prisoner no. 23, Trailokya Nath Chakarborty under Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21. According to a book by Anuj Dhar titled What Happened to Netaji, this prisoner lived in independent India and was prolific among the ex-INA. He was regarded as a freedom fighter.

    Readers note that many later prisoners are affiliated with the Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose. You may be interested in my review of Anuj Dhar’s book What Happened to Netaji. This is a game-changing book that provides evidence that Netaji probably died in 1985 in Northern India.

  22. Jatindra Nath PutatundaNo Gravatar says:

    Sir,
    Request you to share on more information on sl no 294 : Patitunda, Bhaba Ranjan Part V political prisioners at cellular jail

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      I do not have any additional information. But I am publishing your request hoping that any reader who does have information will respond.

  23. Amit BiswasNo Gravatar says:

    Please add Hemanta kumar Biswas in the list.

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Dear Mr. Biswas, please provide some context. I will publish it in the comments. This list is taken as is from another website for archival purposes. We cannot add new names to it. However, your observation will be noted in the comments. Please do provide additional details. Also note that there is a Dhirendra Kumar Biswas (#52 under Part V – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL (1932-38)).

  24. Amlan BasuNo Gravatar says:

    I am Amlan Basu, one of the descendants of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s Family. Part-3, no.33, Late Shri Sachindra Nath Dutta is my Great Grandfather (maternal). He had three daughters. I am the grandson of his youngest daughter Late Mrs. Preeti Basu. She was married to Late Mr. Nripendra Kumar Basu (ex-DSP, West Bengal Police and was a recipient of President’s Police Gold Medal).

    Shri Sachindra Nath Dutta was a refulgent student. He scored 100% marks in mathematics in his higher secondary examination. He later became one of the most exceptional Chartered Accountants. It is said that he used to calculate anything present in-front of him without the help of the calculator, within seconds.

    He worked as a spy and secret messenger of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and also worked with Bagha Jatin (Shaheed Jatindranath Mukherjee) for India’s independence.

    His first and the eldest daughter was married to a school teacher and the second daughter (Tripti Sen) was married to a mathematics professor (Dr. Tapan Sen), later they both expatriated to the USA and became professors in University of North Carolina.

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Thank you for the additional context on Sachindra Nath Dutta. Readers note that Sachindra Nath Dutta is listed as No. 33 under Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21.

  25. Surjeet singhNo Gravatar says:

    My grand father late Katar singh, member of INA, was also kept in cellular jail. He was released somewhere in 1948. And died of bad health in 1951. His name is not in the list. Is it complete list?

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Under Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21, Prisoner No. 69 is a Kartar Singh. Would that be him?

  26. amitava baruaNo Gravatar says:

    there are many communist leader prisoner in this jail like ganesh ghosh, ananta singha, barindra ghosh butkeswar dutta many more. when i enter this memorial i see their name and i am pround.

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Anyone who opposed the British Raj ended up here. I had assumed that most were from different factions of the Freedom Movement and the Indian National Army. Thanks for letting us know that some Communist leaders also ended up here.

  27. Raja chauhanNo Gravatar says:

    I just. Want some more information about these freedom fighter . I am grand son of chauhan sujan singh .

  28. Dr. Rashida IqbalNo Gravatar says:

    Hello Hamad Subani , good effort ..at least you should have mention the source of this exhaustive list.

  29. Rajesh K MisraNo Gravatar says:

    There are a number of Congress leaders who over the years have enjoyed the fruits of power once the country attained freedom from the British. And some of them as well as their families are still doing so. Can anybody tell me how many of such leaders were imprisoned in Andaman jail and tortured there. I’ll be happy if somebody gives a convincing reply to this query.

    Thanx

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      From what I can tell, not a single Indian political leader (post-independence) has any ties to Andaman, be it Congress or any other party. This is because the post-independence leaders of India were a different people, belonging a different generation.

  30. samir senguptaNo Gravatar says:

    There were so many freedom fighters who were held and mercilessly punished by the British Government in Andaman Cellular Jail . But a few of them sent Mercy Petition to the Government .Binayak Damodar Savrarkar was one of the few.

    • Vijay RaghavendramnNo Gravatar says:

      Is there anything wrong with sending a mercy petition? MK Gandhi or Nehru were never sent to Andaman, did anyone ask why?. why are you picking up on Savarkar’s name? Shame on anyone tainting the freedom fighters who took on mighty british and ended up in the most inhumane condition ever created..

  31. Parthasarathi MukherjeeNo Gravatar says:

    Hello, I am in search for Nalini Mohan Mukhopadhyay, alial Nilini, from the dist of Dacca, Manikgunge subdivision, Post- Bhutuni, now in Bangladesh. Was an inmate of Cellular Jail during the freedom movement. Was there till 1944/ 45, so far I know. He was the elder brother of My grandfather NagendraMohan Mukhopadhya. Both were very close to Rasbehari Bose’s extremist movement during the freedom struggle. Can you help me providing any information regarding him?

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      Under Part V – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL (1932-38), there is a Nalini Mohan Das listed as Prisoner No. 137. Let me know if the timeline matches.

  32. Pawanpreet kaur GrewalNo Gravatar says:

    Sardar Jagmail Singh Grewal Freedom fighter

  33. Nirmalya MukherjeeNo Gravatar says:

    I have heard from my late father Wing Commander Krishna Chandra Mukherjee (IAF, Retired) who passed away in Kolkata in December 2016 at the ripe old age of 96, that my late grand father Shri Kartick Chandra Mukherjee formerly domiciled in Matiari village, Nadia (W.B.) who passed away in 1973 at the age of 93 was an associate of Bagha Jatin, whom he assisted in his jailbreak by smuggling revolver components into his jail cell, hidden in a melon. Although the British had a suspicion that my dadu could be associated with B. Jatin they had no proof of it, and was therefore under constant surveillance. My father, at that time a young man, who was then working at the Grand Hotel reception in Kolkata was by association also under suspicion of being an activist, and was shadowed by the British C.I.D. wherever he went. Although I have spent half of my 65 years of life living in Western countries, my appreciation of the hard-fought independence that India earned has not been diminished in the least. I salute all our great freedom fighters and can only rue that Netaji S.C. Bose did not come into power after independence for the salvation of India. Jai Hind!

  34. solarchemNo Gravatar says:

    I am the grandson of Nadir Ali Shah(listed in 1909-21)
    I like to know more about him.
    Is there any detail available for my grandfather

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      In Part III – POLITICAL PRISONERS IN THE CELLULAR JAIL 1909-21, see prisoner 96, Nadir Ali Shah. I suppose thats him! Can you please give us additional details about him?

  35. p mukherjeeNo Gravatar says:

    Heard from my family members that Sri Mani Monahan or Manindra mohan Mukherjee was there for long as he was a freedom fighter. Have seen his name in a book Who’s who of Indian Freedom Fighters when I was a school boy. I need to know more about him. Not getting any info from our family. Do not know his whereabouts. Please help.

  36. ASDNo Gravatar says:

    I salute your effort! I’m sure you have noted the marble plaques installed on the jail tower walls… They list 100s of prisoners names there.

  37. AjoyNo Gravatar says:

    Bengal has paid the most and ultimate sacrifice, but never got the due respect and name because of the Gandhi-Nehru jugal bandi ….

    • Hamad SubaniNo Gravatar says:

      The British first segregated the Hindu and Muslim population of Bengal on manufactured differences such as language. Bengal was partitioned under British rule in 1905. Few People realised that this was a dry run for the later partition of the entire Indian subcontinent. Why Bengal? Because the British were disturbed by the nationalism that was brewing there.

  38. erfan ahmadNo Gravatar says:

    sher ali afridi who killed lord mayo is not given due respect in indian freedom movement history .even his name is not mentioned . his sacrifice and action was great. He should be given his right place in history

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